Author Topic: Small Scale Mining - the Philippine Way  (Read 62231 times)

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Offline KIZUNA

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Re: Small Scale Mining - the Philippine Way
« Reply #45 on: July 28, 2011, 05:48:33 AM »
Hi Tamaraw/Miguel, and everybody interested in mining,

Sorry for this late reply, i been out prospecting lately, out there in Davao del sur's last frontier for mining.
Hiked for 5 days, only stopping for our breakfast, lunch, dinner and for a night time sleep in the wilderness of Kiblawan, far where no prospectors ever conquered.
We are guarded by the mighty B'laan guardians, the sons of the tribal chief who owns and claims 5,000 hectares of their ancestral domain.
I was there with a mission, to teach those innocent B'laan the techniques of mining, informed them of their rights and now we are set to register in the Securities and exchange Commission, a small scale mining association carrying the tribes claim of their ancestral domain.
Nobody, no mining groups can enter the last frontier if they will not joint venture with our association soon. To uplift the plight of those poor natives is our goal and history will be on the making.
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Offline KIZUNA

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Re: Small Scale Mining - the Philippine Way
« Reply #46 on: July 28, 2011, 05:56:57 AM »
Discovering my first vein in my second day of prospecting....
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Re: Small Scale Mining - the Philippine Way
« Reply #47 on: July 28, 2011, 06:02:50 AM »
Kizuna that's awesome! Thanks for your update.

Tamaraw was also asking your help about how to separate the gold by other means without using cyanide.
TW

Offline KIZUNA

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Re: Small Scale Mining - the Philippine Way
« Reply #48 on: July 28, 2011, 06:30:59 AM »
other vein types found by following the water/drainage systems of the deep jungle....
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Offline KIZUNA

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Re: Small Scale Mining - the Philippine Way
« Reply #49 on: July 28, 2011, 06:42:01 AM »
ores found
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Re: Small Scale Mining - the Philippine Way
« Reply #50 on: July 28, 2011, 06:49:23 AM »
Yes admin TW, Tamaraw/Miguel,
There are substitute for mercury, we have chlorine, bromine and or iodine andf or activated carbon.
But first, the type of ore must be determined first.
however, one can still use mercury "safely" by catching the vapors trough the use of a retort pot.
I'll check first my files and i will email it to Tamaraw..

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Re: Small Scale Mining - the Philippine Way
« Reply #51 on: July 28, 2011, 07:05:18 AM »
Here's something about Iodine.. i haven't tried this one but this might help...

Iodine Leaching Manual

One of the finest Halogen leaches applicable to extracting Precious
Metals, Iodine is selective to the higher valence metals without
adjustment, straight from the bottle.

Commonly available Iodine leach is sold as 7% solution, a remedy
for horses, cows and goats, as a disinfectant for Hoof problems.
Therefore it is found at Feed stores, Veterinary suppliers and some
True Value stores in Agricultural districts. 

Although not cheap, it has the virtue of being re-usable over and over, unlike the other
Halogens. Iodine does not wear out, and is only lost through evaporation and attrition. The
Iodine is dissolved in alcohol, which then makes it soluble in water. By itself, it is a black,
metallic-looking flake, and evaporates at room temperature.

Iodine leach, as sold, goes to work immediately on Gold, then Platinums, then Silver, in that
order. It tends to ignore the other "Trash" metals if used alone. Naturally, it is about PH 4-5,
and is kept there, especially in the presence of Alkali metals, by adding small amounts of
HCL acid.
ORP is not important here, as long as you keep the PH between 2 and 5 PH. It will naturally
begin at ORP 400 to extract metals.
As Iodine does not work as quickly as other leaches, patience is called for, typically 24-48
hours to collect fine gold.

It can be left to extract indefinitely, will not re-precipitate from solution, and will only stop
when the PH rises to 7.
The longer you let it leach, the more it will collect.

Let's Get some Precious Metal!

Start with a CLEAN plastic container (or Glass) of any size.
Make sure you have a tight-fitting lid for it after mixing the leach into your batch of ore.
Best results are obtained with the following formulation:
1 part 7% Iodine
10 parts water
1 part ore
10 parts combined liquid
Mix everything together in your container, making sure you have fresh air circulation, as
confined Iodine fumes can be toxic, and burn your eyes. For agitation, you can add a small
air bubbler with stone at the bottom of the leach tank, like those used in aquariums, to keep
the mixture circulating.
If you add heat to speed up the reaction, by quartz heater, keep the tank sealed during the
leaching, as it evaporates readily when exposed to air.
Your liquid leach will start out as a clear,brassy red color, and darken to brownish-rust color
or darker, as it collects metals.
Colors tell us what is going on in leaching.
Once you have mastered the routine, no meters will be needed to guide you, and the metals
are delivered.
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Re: Small Scale Mining - the Philippine Way
« Reply #52 on: July 28, 2011, 07:09:36 AM »
Thanks for that! Awesome!
TW

Offline tamaraw

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Re: Small Scale Mining - the Philippine Way
« Reply #53 on: July 28, 2011, 07:19:31 AM »
thank you, ill be waiting for your email
hoping we could learn not to use Mercury

Offline KIZUNA

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Re: Small Scale Mining - the Philippine Way
« Reply #54 on: July 30, 2011, 08:00:18 AM »
Hi Admin TW, Tamaraw and to everybody,
This is in response to Tamaraw's querry and to you friend Tamaraw, i opted to better share this one here for the benefit of everybody.
This is lifted from;
UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME-
UNEP

Squeezing gold from a stone:

How to Reduce Toxic Health Risks and Pollution Caused by Mercury Use in the Small-Scale & Artisanal Gold Mining Sector Addressing the Toxic Health Risks and Pollution

Chasing today’s higher gold prices, as many as 20 million people in more than 70 countries are being lured to small-scale and artisanal gold mining (ASGM) to try to escape from poverty.

But this gamble has high stakes. Many small-scale and artisanal miners are using mercury, a persistent and toxic chemical, to extract gold from ore. During the process mercury escapes into the environment, posing grave, and often irreversible, health threats not only to miners but also to some of the world’s most vulnerable populations—women and children. And this invisible threat is reaching well beyond the mining camps as the mercury travels through the world’s air and waterways and into fish globally.

Fortunately, low-cost technologies available now have the potential to reduce mercury pollution in the sector dramatically. By supporting miners with knowledge and resources to adopt these new technologies and with the right policies in place at the local, national and global level, we can stem a significant source of global mercury pollution now.

Swift action will have an immediate impact in reducing the amount of mercury released by ASGM and dramatically benefit health and economic well being of miners, part of a global agreement to control mercury pollution. The rapid growth in the sector is fueled largely by swelling gold prices, which have risen from US$10 per gram in 1997 to more than US$30 per gram in 20092. For the miners, the record gold prices offer an opportunity for bringing new wealth into impoverished communities that often fail to attract other industries.

One of the by-products of a booming ASGM sector is mercury pollution. Mercury is used to bind with gold particles in ore to create an amalgam. When the gold-mercury amalgam is heated to burn off the mercury, leaving the gold behind, the vapors are directly inhaled by miners, exposing them and others in the mining communities to grave health risks.

Mercury is a potent neurological toxicant that interferes with brain functions and the nervous system. It is particularly harmful to babies and young children. Low-level exposure to infants during gestation is associated with reduced attention span, fine-motor function, language, visual-spatial abilities (such as drawing) and verbal memory. In adults, mercury can cause numbness and tingling, vision abnormalities, and memory problems.

Challenges to eliminating mercury use

Governments have agreed through the UNEP Governing Council to develop a legally binding instrument on mercury to reduce risks to human health and the environment, taking into account the circumstances of countries. The intergovernmental negotiating committee is to develop a comprehensive and suitable approach to mercury to reduce the demand and releases of mercury from all sources, including ASGM.

There are compelling reasons why mercury is currently favored by miners over other methods of gold extraction, including ease of use, ready accessibility and relatively low cost. Because mercury techniques yield gold rapidly, mercury puts cash in miner’s pockets quickly. Further, mercury amalgamation allows for a completely independent processing: the entire mining process can be accomplished by just one miner, unlike more expensive and technically sophisticated methods.

Though other methods may be more effective in theory, mercury amalgamation is generally a practical and efficient method under the conditions typically found at ASGM sites. For miners to implement replacement technologies, the replacement needs to produce as much gold or more for similar financial and time investments for the miner. As well these replacement technologies need to initially fit into a similar labor structure.

Governments have requested UNEP to continue and enhance, work to conduct awareness-raising and pilot projects in key countries to reduce mercury use in artisanal and small scale gold mining through the Global Mercury Partnership.

Cost effective alternative methods exist that can eliminate or greatly reduce the quantity of mercury used in ASGM, however, due to the imminent threat to ASGM to miners and their families, as well as the significant and growing emissions to the global environment, adoption of these methods must urgently be accelerated now. Reducing mercury emissions and exposures through ready-to-go technical solutions.

Use non-mercury methods

In some cases, it may be possible for miners to transition away from mercury-based extraction processes altogether. Gold from certain types of ores can be extracted effectively by non-mercury methods alone.

Specially designed equipment

may be effective in particular settings, such as the use of magnets to enhance gold recovery in ores that are associated with magnetite, a mineral commonly found in gold deposits. Centrifuges can also be used and shaker tables can enhance separation. Although these methods can be effective with particular ores, they often require special knowledge, equipment and skilled operators to maximize gold recovery and minimize losses due to inefficiencies in the process.

Stop the practice of whole ore amalgamation by replacing it with gravity and other methods.

One of the worst and most wasteful uses of mercury in small scale gold mining is wholeore amalgamation, where mercury is mixed with all of the ore mined. One alternative is to pre-concentrate the ores, using gravitybased separation methods such as sluices and centrifuges, before using mercury. By doing so, the miners can mix mercury with a much smaller amount of ore that contains a higher concentration of gold. Amalgamating concentrates, rather than the whole ore, greatly decreases the overall amount of mercury required to extract the same amount of gold.

Reduce emissions by using retorts in the field and by using mercury vapor capture systems in shops that refine local gold.

Emissions from burning amalgam can be reduced using a device called a retort, which captures the mercury vapor without dissipating it into the air. The recovered mercury can be reused preventing purchase of new mercury, and its capture dramatically reduces the exposure of miners and their families to mercury. Various
types of retorts are available, both manufactured and those constructed of locally sourced, inexpensive materials.

Using retorts, or other mercury vapor capture systems, can reduce mercury losses by as much as 95 percent.

Gold produced by ASGM miners is often further refined locally in the shops of gold buyers, trading agencies, and jewelry makers which releases mercury and exposes the shopkeepers and urban neighborhoods to harmful effects of mercury. Gold shops can also be fitted with inexpensive mercury vapor capture systems to minimize emissions.

Re-activate and re-use mercury.

Used mercury recovered after processing does not amalgamate gold as well as new mercury due to impurities accumulated during the amalgamation process. Because it is not
as effective at capturing gold, miners often discard this “dirty” mercury into the environment. However, this can be easily and cheaply prevented. Dirty mercury can be reactivated inexpensively in the field using instant coffe powder and or salt water and a 12-volt battery.  

By reactivating, miners can use the mercury indefinitely, which means much less mercury is used overall. Miners also save money, since they don’t have to buy new mercury and reactivated mercury gets more gold. Dirty mercury can be reactivated inexpensively in the field using salt water and a 12-volt battery.

Other solutions

Other chemicals besides mercury can be used to extract gold. Cyanide leaching, for example, is the predominant method used by large-scale industrial gold mining. Cyanidation has a number of strong points, including speed, efficiency and also some environmental advantages relative to mercury. For example, cyanide degrades quickly in the environment, whereas mercury is highly persistent. On the other hand, cyanide is extremely toxic. If not handled properly, it is dangerous to miners and, if discharged into
streams, can kill aquatic life.

Furthermore if used with mercury, it forms compounds that can easily be transported with water spreading mercury contamination. It can also convert mercury into a form that is more easily absorbed into the food chain. In addition, if small-scale miners use mercury before cyanide leaching, the residual mercury can react with the cyanide, preventing it from leaching gold and decreasing the gold recovery. This “worst” practice—the use of both mercury and cyanide—must therefore be
avoided.

There are a number of recommended practices for cyanide leaching to protect health and the environment, including safe cyanide storage and handling, monitoring for cyanide escape, promotion of recycling, proper storage of cyanide and proper mixing of solutions. Will these simple steps really address the problem?

From a technical point of view, shifting to non-mercury and lower-mercury practices can effectively reduce mercury consumption quickly. In fact, the UNEP Global Mercury
Partnership has estimated that three steps alone—elimination of whole-ore amalgamation, use of mercury vapor capture systems, and reactivation—could dramatically reduce mercury use and release.

If all miners were educated about these practices and adopted them, eliminating whole ore amalgamation could cut global mercury consumption by 36 percent, controlling emissions through mercury vapor capture systems could cut consumption by as much as 32 percent, and reactivating or cleaning mercury for re-use could cut mercury
consumption by 25 percent. UNEP Global Mercury Programme’s ASGM Partnership has set a realistic goal of reducing mercury use in ASGM by 50 percent in 10 years, mainly by
working toward these three approaches.

The challenge of realizing these potential reductions lies in the need to reach out to the dispersed and informal community of miners, to education them about these methods, and to overcome the financial and social barriers that undermine their adoption. While the restrictions on supply and trade of mercury will likely increase the price of mercury
and thus provide an incentive to miners to change their practices, at the same time, it is imperative to provide miners with the knowledge and support to help them cope with these changes while still realizing the economic benefits of gold production and to avoid creating or promoting a “black market” for mercury.

The international community can help to meet this challenge by facilitating the development of effective models that couple inexpensive, efficient technical solutions with innovative education and exchange programs along with policy development that allows widespread adoption of the new methods.

Three steps alone—elimination of whole-ore amalgamation, use of mercury vapor capture systems and reactivation—could reduce dramatically reduce mercury use and release.
Will these simple steps really address the problem?

From a technical point of view, shifting to non-mercury and lower-mercury practices can effectively reduce mercury consumption quickly. In fact, the UNEP Global Mercury
Partnership has estimated that three steps alone—elimination of whole-ore amalgamation, use of mercury vapor capture systems, and reactivation—could dramatically reduce mercury use and release. If all miners were educated about these practices and adopted them, eliminating whole ore amalgamation could cut global mercury consumption by 36 percent, controlling emissions through mercury vapor capture systems could cut consumption by as much as 32 percent, and reactivating or cleaning mercury for re-use could cut mercury consumption by 25 percent. UNEP Global Mercury Programme’s ASGM Partnership has set a realistic goal of reducing mercury use in ASGM by 50 percent in 10 years, mainly by working toward these three approaches.

The challenge of realizing these potential reductions lies in the need to reach out to the dispersed and informal community of miners, to education them about these methods, and to overcome the financial and social barriers that undermine their adoption. While the restrictions on supply and trade of mercury will likely increase the price of mercury
and thus provide an incentive to miners tochange their practices, at the same time, it is imperative to provide miners with the knowledge and support to help them cope with these changes while still realizing the economic benefits of gold production and to avoid creating or promoting a “black market” for mercury.

The international community can help to meet this challenge by facilitating the development of effective models that couple inexpensive, efficient technical solutions with innovative education and exchange programs along with policy development that allows widespread adoption of the new methods.

Three steps alone—elimination of whole-ore amalgamation, use of mercury vapor capture systems and reactivation—could reduce dramatically reduce mercury use
and release.

Technologies

Reducing mercury use requires policies that enable miners to move to more sustainable methods.

As the international community focuses on mercury in ASGM as part of the broader commitments to reduce global mercury pollution, the negotiation of a legally binding instrument will create dialogue about a framework of goals that will allow businesses, NGOs and local governments to engage the ASGM sector to profitably transition away from mercury.

Trade policy to restrict global mercury supply is one potentially key aspect of the legally binding agreement. Restrictions on new mercury mining and export bans will reduce the supply of mercury, which will in turn increase its price and reduce accessibility. Rising mercury prices will give miners an incentive to conserve mercury. Further, relative scarcity of mercury will make miners more receptive to information on how mercury can be reduced and recycled.

On a local and national level, governments can create a policy environment that allows miners to operate legally, facilitates access to credit and permits formal links to government assistance and to outside organizations that can educate miners on improved technologies. For example, in some countries, organizing mining activities through creation of miners’ associations, has given miners a legal standing that allows them to operate inside the system, allows positive relationships to be created, and gives them
formal mineral rights.
« Last Edit: July 30, 2011, 11:16:27 AM by admin »
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Offline KIZUNA

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Re: Small Scale Mining - the Philippine Way
« Reply #55 on: July 30, 2011, 08:38:36 AM »
MORE...

Non-mercury processes for recovering gold

An electrolytic process to leach gold has also been developed by CETEM (UNIDO, 1997) - Center of Mineral Technology, Rio de Janeiro and tested in a pilot plant in the Tapajós region, Brazil. This process has the potential to replace amalgamation of gravity concentrates. Material with 1 ppm Au was mixed with sodium chloride (1 Mol/l), which is transformed by electrolysis into a mixture of sodium hypochorite-chlorate. More than 95 percent of the gold dissolves within 4 hours and is collected on a graphite cathode. The solution is always recycled minimizing effluent discharge. The NaCl and energy consumptions are 100 kg/metric ton of ore and 170 kwh/kg of Au respectively. Plastic leaching tanks are used, reducing investment cost. So the process is relatively uncomplicated and inexpensive with the potential for use. The main drawback of course, is the need for trained personnel to control operating variables (pH, current density, etc).

The UNECA-type Processing Center is suitable for installation in mining villages or in any central area to facilitate transportation of gravity concentrates. Gold recovery is actually improved and mercury exposure to the operators is insignificant. For a miner who takes his concentrate to a Processing Center, there is the additional benefit of reducing costs in his own processing plant. These Centers play an important role in bringing information about mercurialism caused by mercury vapour and contaminated fish ingestion. Miners can be given brochures and additional instructions while they wait for the processing of their concentrates. The Centers can provide advice for miners on how to improve their production and can provide a meeting place for other purposes of education and organization.

Another option has been reported from South Africa (MMSD, 2002), where the government’s mineral technology research body, Mintek, has developed the new Minataur process. This involves treating the ore with hydrochloric acid in the presence of sodium hypochlorite and then using sodium metabisulphate or oxalic acid to precipitate the gold out as a concentrate that is 99.5% fine gold powder.
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Re: Small Scale Mining - the Philippine Way
« Reply #56 on: July 30, 2011, 11:17:29 AM »
Kizuna, that's awesome! You are a big help to so many here. Thanks!
TW

Offline KIZUNA

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Re: Small Scale Mining - the Philippine Way
« Reply #57 on: July 31, 2011, 03:41:55 PM »
As long as we can help even just trough infos i'll gladly share Admin TW.
Actually mostly large and small scale mining industry here in the Philippines rely mostly on traditional gold extraction methods.
Many would like to follow the new methods but its the financial constraints that deter them.
Government agencies are not so keen about this problem.
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Offline tamaraw

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Re: Small Scale Mining - the Philippine Way
« Reply #58 on: August 01, 2011, 11:31:53 PM »
thank you KIZUNA,

is the following steps possible in extracting gold from ore?

1. crush the ore using jaw crusher ( any alternative method )
2. grind the ore using rod mill ( any alternative method )
3. get the heavies (concentrating of the gold ) from the grind ore ( what method we can use)
4. separate the gold from the black sand by sluice box, blue bowl, miller table (any suggestion)
5. extraction of gold from the gold concentrate using borax  (http://sasmin.ku.dk/projects/borax/) (any additional method)

hope you can help again, in a more detail procedure, i hope am not asking too much, again i want to thank KIZUNA , Mods, Admins.
More Power to you guys!
by the way am from Puerto Galera, born here in the late 60's and now making  enough money out of my 12 rooms beach resort, several friends and town mate are into Small Scale Mining few were able to earn but many had lost a lifetime savings, am worried that a friend also will start his small scale and use Mercury as the other are using in the extraction of gold. Puerto Galera is a tourist spot, 90 percent of the population are making a living out of tourism business and only 1 percent maybe less are making money out of Gold Mining, once the Miners earn their houses are getting bigger and a brand new car in the garage. If nobody would start a right and efficient system in extracting gold, Puerto Galera will lost its Beaches, Corals and Tourism Business due to Mercury, and i dont want that to happen. As of now several Resort owner (am one of them) are trying to make or help the Miners process the ore the most eco friendly procedure so that we can live and earn at the same time, we believe that Miners and Resort owner can grow together. We need to establish a processing center here, Hope you will understand.

thank you,
Miguel


Offline KIZUNA

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Re: Small Scale Mining - the Philippine Way
« Reply #59 on: August 02, 2011, 04:00:25 AM »
Ok Tamaraw we will dwelve on that but i believe we should start form the very beginning, the basics that is, for the benefit of everybody whose interested in mining.
Let's start from here, mining in the Philippines....

TALKING ABOUT MINING HERE IN THE PHILIPPINES?,

better start with the basics.

Republic of the Philippines
Congress of the Philippines
Metro Manila

Republic Act No. 7942

AN ACT INSTITUTING A NEW SYSTEM OF MINERAL
RESOURCES EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, UTILIZATION
AND CONSERVATION

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTORY PROVISIONS

Section 1. Title. - This act shall be known as the Philippine
Mining Act of 1995.

Section 2. Declaration of Policy. - All mineral resources in
public and private lands within the territory and exclusive economic
zone of the Republic of the Philippines are owned by the State. It
shall be the responsibility of the State to promote their rational
exploration, development, utilization and conservation through the
combined efforts of government and the private sector in order to
enhance national growth in a way that effectively safeguards the
environment and protect the rights of affected communities.
Section 3. Definition of Terms. - As used in and for
purposes of this Act, the following terms, whether in singular or
plural, shall mean:

(a) "Ancestral lands" refers to all lands exclusively and
actually possessed, occupied, or utilized by indigenous
cultural communities by themselves or through their
ancestors in accordance with their customs and
traditions since time immemorial, and as may be
defined and delineated by law.

(b) "Block" or "meridional block" means an area bounded
by one-half (1/2) minute of latitude and one-half (1/2)
minute of longitude, containing approximately eightyone
hectares (81 has).

3
(c) "Bureau" means the Mines and Geosciences Bureau
under the Department of Environment and Natural
Resources.

(d) "Carrying capacity" refers to the capacity of natural
and human environments to accommodate and absorb
change without experiencing conditions of instability
and attendant degradation.

(e) "Contiguous zone" refers to water, sea bottom and
substratum measured twenty-four nautical miles (24
n.m.) seaward from the base line of the Philippine
archipelago.

(f) "Contract area" means land or body of water
delineated for purposes of exploration, development, or
utilization of the minerals found therein.
(g) "Contractor" means a qualified person acting alone or
in consortium who is a party to a mineral agreement or
to a financial or technical assistance agreement.
(h) "Co-production agreement (CA)" means an agreement
entered into between the Government and one or
more contractors in accordance with Section 26(b)
hereof.

(I) "Department" means the Department of Environment
and Natural Resources.

(j) "Development" means the work undertaken to explore
and prepare an ore body or a mineral deposit for
mining, including the construction of necessary
infrastructure and related facilities.

(k) "Director" means the Director of the Mines and
Geosciences Bureau.

(l) "Ecological profile or eco-profile" refers to geographicbased
instruments for planners and decision-makers
which presents an evaluation of the environmental
quality and carrying capacity of an area.
(m) "Environmental compliance certificate (ECC)" refers to
the document issued by the government agency
concerned certifying that the project under
consideration will not bring about an unacceptable
environmental impact and that the proponent has
complied with the requirements of the environmental
impact statement system.

(n) "Environmental impact statement (EIS)" is the
document which aims to identify, predict, interpret, and
communicate information regarding changes in

environmental quality associated with a proposed
project and which examines the range of alternatives
for the objectives of the proposal and their impact on
the environment.
(o) "Exclusive economic zone" means the water, sea
bottom and subsurface measured from the baseline of
the Philippine archipelago up to two hundred nautical
miles (200 n.m.) offshore.
(p) "Existing mining/quarrying right" means a valid and
subsisting mining claim or permit or quarry permit or
any mining lease contract or agreement covering a
mineralized area granted/issued under pertinent mining
laws.
(q) "Exploration" means the searching or prospecting for
mineral resources by geological, geochemical or
geophysical surveys, remote sensing, test pitting,
trenching, drilling, shaft sinking, tunneling or any other
means for the purpose of determining the existence,
extent, quantity and quality thereof and the feasibility of
mining them for profit.
( r ) "Financial or technical assistance agreement" means
a contract involving financial or technical assistance for
large-scale exploration, development, and utilization of
mineral resources.
(s) "Force majeure" means acts or circumstances beyond
the reasonable control of contractor including, but not
limited to, war, rebellion, insurrection, riots, civil
disturbance, blockade, sabotage, embargo, strike,
lockout, any dispute with surface owners and other
labor disputes, epidemic, earthquake, storm, flood or
other adverse weather conditions, explosion, fire,
adverse action by government or by any
instrumentality or subdivision thereof, act of God or any
public enemy and any cause that herein describe over
which the affected party has no reasonable control.
(t) "Foreign-owned corporation" means any corporation,
partnerships, association, or cooperative duly
registered in accordance with law in which less than
fifty per centum (50%) of the capital is owned by
Filipino citizens.
(u) "Government" means the government of the Republic
of the Philippines.
5
(v) "Gross output" means the actual market value of
minerals or mineral products from its mining area as
defined in the National Internal Revenue Code.
(w) "Indigenous cultural community" means a group or
tribe or indigenous Filipinos who have continuously
lived as communities on communally-bounded and
defined land since time immemorial and have
succeeded in preserving, maintaining, and sharing
common bonds of languages, customs, traditions, and
other distinctive cultural traits, and as may be defined
and delineated by law.
(x) "Joint venture agreement (JV)" means an agreement
entered into between the Government and one or more
contractors in accordance with Section 26(c) hereof.
(y) "Mineral processing" means the milling, beneficiation
or upgrading of ores or minerals and rocks or by similar
means to convert the same into marketable products.
(z) "Mine wastes and tailings" shall mean soil and rock
materials from surface or underground mining and
milling operations with no economic value to the
generator of the same.
(aa) "Minerals" refers to all naturally occurring inorganic
substance in solid, gas, liquid, or any intermediate
state excluding energy materials such as coal,
petroleum, natural gas, radioactive materials, and
geothermal energy.
(ab) "Mineral agreement" means a contract between the
government and a contractor, involving mineral
production-sharing agreement, co-production
agreement, or joint-venture agreement.
(ac) "Mineral land" means any area where mineral
resources are found.
(ad) "Mineral Resource" means any concentration of
minerals/rocks with potential economic value.
(ae) "Mining area" means a portion of the contract area
identified by the contractor for purposes of
development, mining, utilization, and sites for support
facilities or in the immediate vicinity of the mining
operations.
(af) "Mining operation" means mining activities involving
exploration, feasibility, development, utilization, and
processing.
6
(ag) "Nongovernmental organization (NGO)" includes
nonstock, nonprofit organizations involved in activities
dealing with resource and environmental conservation,
management and protection.
(ah) "Net assets" refers to the property, plant and
equipment as reflected in the audited financial
statement of the contractor net of depreciation, as
computed for tax purposes, excluding appraisal
increase and construction in progress.
(ai) "Offshore" means the water, sea bottom, and
subsurface from the shore or coastline reckoned from
the mean low tide level up to the two hundred nautical
miles (200 n.m.) exclusive economic zone including the
archipelagic sea and contiguous zone.
(aj) "Onshore" means the landward side from the mean
tide elevation, including submerged lands in lakes,
rivers and creeks.
(ak) "Ore" means a naturally occurring substance or
material from which a mineral or element can be mined
and/or processed for profit.
(al) "Permittee" means the holder of an exploration permit.
(am) "Pollution control and infrastructure devices" refers to
infrastructure, machinery, equipment and/or
improvements used for impounding, treating or
neutralizing, precipitating, filtering, conveying and
cleansing mine industrial waste and tailings as well as
eliminating or reducing hazardous effects of solid
particles, chemicals, liquids or other harmful
byproducts and gases emitted from any facility utilized
in mining operations for their disposal.
(an) "President" means the President of the Republic of the
Philippines.
(ao) "Private land" refers to any land belonging to any
private person which includes alienable and disposable
land being claimed by a holder, claimant, or occupant
who has already acquired a vested right thereto under
the law, although the corresponding certificate or
evidence of title or patent has not been actually issued.
(ap) "Public land" refers to lands of the public domain
which have been classified as agricultural lands and
subject to management and disposition or concession
under existing laws.
7
(aq) "Qualified person" means any citizen of the Philippines
with capacity to contract, or a corporation, partnership,
association, or cooperative organized or authorized for
the purpose of engaging in mining, with technical and
financial capability to undertake mineral resources
development and duly registered in accordance with
law at least sixty per centum (60%) of the capital of
which is owned by citizens of the Philippines:
Provided, That a legally organized foreign-owned
corporation shall be deemed a qualified person for
purposes of granting an exploration permit, financial or
technical assistance agreement or mineral processing
permit.
(ar) "Quarrying" means the process of extracting, removing
and disposing quarry resources found on or
underneath the surface of private or public land.
(as) "Quarry permit" means a document granted to a
qualified person for the extraction and utilization of
quarry resources on public or private lands.
(at) "Quarry resources" refers to any common rock or
other mineral substances as the Director of Mines and
Geosciences Bureau may declare to be quarry
resources such as, but not limited to, andesite, basalt,
conglomerate, coral sand, diatomaceous earth, diorite,
decorative stones, gabbro, granite, limestone, marble,
marl, red burning clays for potteries and bricks,
rhyolite, rock phosphate, sandstone, serpentine, shale,
tuff, volcanic cinders, and volcanic glass: Provided,
that such quarry resources do not contain metals or
metallic constituents and/or other valuable minerals in
economically workable quantities: Provided, further,
That non-metallic minerals such as kaolin, feldspar,
bull quartz, quartz or silica, sand and pebbles,
bentonite, talc, asbestos, barite, gypsum, bauxite,
magnesite, dolomite, mica, precious and semi-precious
stones, and other non-metallic minerals that may later
be discovered and which the Director declares the
same to be of economically workable quantities, shall
not be classified under the category of quarry
resources.
(au) "Regional director" means the regional director of any
mines regional office under the Department of
Environment and Natural Resources.
8
(av) "Regional office" means any of the mines regional
offices of the Department of Environment and Natural
Resources.
(aw) "Secretary" means the Secretary of the Department of
Environment and Natural Resources.
(ax) "Special allowance" refers to payment to the claimowners
or surface right-owners particularly during the
transition period from Presidential Decree No. 463 and
Executive Order No. 279, series of 1987.
(ay) "State" means the Republic of the Philippines.
(az) "Utilization" means the extraction or disposition of
minerals.
   

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