Author Topic: Imperial Japanese Geodetic Survey, Mapmaking,Maps: In context to Ph. T. Hunting  (Read 29474 times)

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Offline Ben Valmores

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What hemisphere is the Philippines in>?

The Philippines

Situated on the western edge of the Pacific Ocean, the Philippines is one of the major crossroads in the eastern hemisphere. It claims title to the second largest archipelago on the planet, with over 7,100 individual islands within its borders and it is home to over 100 ethnic groups and hundreds of language dialects.

Another question another answer?...

Is the Philippines located in the northern hemisphere or southern hemisphere?

In: Travel › Geography

The Republic of Philippines is located west of the Pacific Ocean. Philippines is situated along the Ring of Fire. This nation of islands is located in the northern hemisphere and eastern hemisphere.

So will follow our readings based on northern...

“Destiny is not a matter of chance. It is a matter of choice: It is not a thing to be waited for, it is a thing to be achieved.”
---William Jennings Bryan

Offline Ben Valmores

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okay get it on....Let's review, let's study now :) :) ;)

Here's some quotes about knowledge;


"Knowledge is not a passion from without the mind, but an active exertion of the inward strength, vigor and power of the mind, displaying itself from within."   
 

 Ralph Lauren 

"Knowledge is happiness, because to have knowledge -- broad, deep knowledge -- is to know true ends from false, and lofty things from low"
 

 Helen Keller

"The more the fruits of knowledge become accessible to men, the more widespread is the decline of religious belief"   

 Sigmund Freud

And from Janner's RAF motto, really

KNOWLEDGE DISPELS FEARS!!!

Read today and lead tomorrow...halina't magbasa
“Destiny is not a matter of chance. It is a matter of choice: It is not a thing to be waited for, it is a thing to be achieved.”
---William Jennings Bryan

Offline Ben Valmores

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“Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some to be chewed and digested.”
― Francis Bacon
“Destiny is not a matter of chance. It is a matter of choice: It is not a thing to be waited for, it is a thing to be achieved.”
---William Jennings Bryan

Offline Ben Valmores

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“Knowledge is power? No. Knowledge on its own is nothing, but the application of useful knowledge, now that is powerful.”
― Rob Liano
“Destiny is not a matter of chance. It is a matter of choice: It is not a thing to be waited for, it is a thing to be achieved.”
---William Jennings Bryan

Offline Ben Valmores

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“The world is full of magical things patiently waiting for our wits to grow sharper.”
― Bertrand Russell
“Destiny is not a matter of chance. It is a matter of choice: It is not a thing to be waited for, it is a thing to be achieved.”
---William Jennings Bryan

Offline ZOBEX

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“The world is full of magical things patiently waiting for our wits to grow sharper.”
― Bertrand Russell

Many years ago, when the War in South East Asia had come to it's glorious end, I was a Structural Geologist and we spent many good times in the Desert getting bug bit, dirty and totally wasted at night around a camp fire.  It's amazing how all things come together after 6 beers and a couple of joints.  Our calculations were done out of Tables in books and using SLIDE RULES !!!  Bad times were had by all.  So for those of you who have been a surveyor or just a  " Stick Man ", I leave you with these quotes - - - .


“I would have more people skills if I had people with skills.”

“My party chief wanted to go someplace he had never been before…. so I took him to the rear property line.”

“Surveying – it is a great career, but a lousy business.”

“People do not choose to be surveyors, they are born that way.”

“If you really want to know where your property line is, ask your neighbor.”

“I remember surveying the ad-joiner in 1957.  There was an SIB set by Pierce on that corner.”

“Why did they let me build my house on their property?  Someone should have stopped me.”

“I got a coordinate from Google earth, and laid out my property line with my hand held GPS.  What do you mean it is not right.”

“Yeah, I saw the survey bars along the road, but I found that a few good hits with a sledgehammer and they will come right out.  I use them to hold my barn door open and as pry bars.”

“I took a surveying course in college in 1962.  If I help out the crew, will it save me some money?”

“My deed says I own 100 acres.  Your plan shows only 99.5 acres.  You stole some of my land.”

“It’s got to be right.  I had it surveyed by my neighbor's cousin’s friend who used to work for Hydro.”

OK so only a surveyor would find those amusing, except the one about Google. 


Z



Offline Ben Valmores

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LOL :D :D :D
My Pop and bros says they'll have a good day after reading those words Zobex,
Nice...
“Destiny is not a matter of chance. It is a matter of choice: It is not a thing to be waited for, it is a thing to be achieved.”
---William Jennings Bryan

Offline Ben Valmores

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again a little bit from,

Magnetic Declination

It is called the difference between the north geographic pole and the north magnetic pole.
Depending on where you are on the earth, the angle of declination will be different - from some locations, the geographic and magnetic poles are aligned so declination is minimal, but from other spots, the angle between the two poles is pretty big.

In context to T-hunting:

Does it make good sense to use a map's declination information if that map is more than 70 years old?, to those Golden Lily Maps and other small scale Japanese Treasure Maps???
 
Maybe these simple ways could answer that;

1. Use recently published maps and or that one  taken from google earth and or GPS (not affected by declination) but in conjunction with the old map.

2. Know the current declination for the area and use that information for your readings/navigations.

3. Adjust your compass


On many compasses, you are able to adjust the declination by twisting a ring, using a screw, or some other method of changing where the orienting arrow sits in relation to the ring.

If you used a compass set with 0 degrees declination in your treasure site, for example, where the declination may be 12 degrees East, the compass would tell you that you're heading North when you're actually heading 12 degrees East of North.
You'd quickly wind up off course and lost.
 
By adjusting the compass to match the declination on your map, the orienting arrow now appears to be off center from North, which is how it should be.

Now, when you put RED in the SHED (needle inside orienting arrow), the North indicated at the index pointer is true north and matches your map.

You can continue to check your location and chart your course correctly.
Whenever you stop and check your heading or take a bearing on a distant object, the degrees read on the dial will be the actual true degrees.

The only thing that looks a bit odd is that the north end of the compass needle does not point directly at the N when you are heading due North.

4. If you have a compass with no declination adjustment or you just like math, then you can do the declination calculations in your head---again you can do the math in your head.



“Destiny is not a matter of chance. It is a matter of choice: It is not a thing to be waited for, it is a thing to be achieved.”
---William Jennings Bryan

Offline Ben Valmores

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..........
“Destiny is not a matter of chance. It is a matter of choice: It is not a thing to be waited for, it is a thing to be achieved.”
---William Jennings Bryan

Offline Ben Valmores

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Now i believe we have dwelt so much about the basics of surveying, so it's time now to shift back to our main theme on how the Japanese Imperial Government used to its advantage Militarily their advancement of Surveying and Mapmaking.

Let's start with this quite controversial subject about Imperial Japanese Army's GAIHOZU MAPS

Gaihozu:

Are the maps of areas outside Japanese territories mostly general topographic maps.
Gaihozu. Also referred to variously in the past as imperial maps, colonial surveys, or captured military maps,

The Land Survey Department of the General Staff Headquarters, the former Japanese Army, by the end of the Pacific War in 1945 produced and reproduced predominantly maps of scales ranging from 1:25,000 to 1:500,000.

Gaihozu include those maps which were overtly surveyed and drawn by Japanese surveying squads (as was the case in militarily occupied territories), those which were produced by surveyors and intelligence officers of the Japanese army, who were dispatched by sealed order, in a secret manner (for instance, in disputed areas), and those which were reproduced from topographic maps drawn by land survey departments of other countries.

Most of Gaihozu were of the high degree of secrecy based on military concern, and very few official records exist as for the production processes.

Most maps created in this way were strictly controlled with classification such as a “secret”, a “military secret”, and a “military top secret”.

The strictness of the control over the total number of map sheets was such that it is said that it was not the situation of using these maps for actual campaign in front lines, although a considerable number of sheets were used for military exercises.

Their production dates back to 1888 before the Sino Japanese War outbreak, and their geographical coverage stretches to Alaska northward, areas of U.S. mainland eastward, Australia  southward, and westward to parts of Pakistan and Afghanistan, including an isolated case of Madagascar.
 
Small-scale compiled maps by continent were also produced.

Such a manner of usage left a huge number of Gaihozu intact at the time of Japan’s military defeat in 1945. These maps were doomed to requisition by the allied forces, and it was expected that they should be disposed on a large scale beyond the reach of the occupation forces.
 
However, most Gaihozu, produced in the above mentioned circumstances, have high values in terms of scientific research and education, as well as other non-military purposes, being as straightforward records of the land surface and landscape in the end of the 19th century to the first half of the 20th century.
 
Therefore, some scholars, who feared scatter and loss of Gaihozu, tried their emergency evacuation. As long as the writer acknowledges, they were scholars such as Tanakadate Shuzo, who held a professorship of geography, founded de facto in April, 1945, at the Faculty of Science, Tohoku University, and Tada Fumio, who was an assistant professor of the Institute of Geography at the University of Tokyo and served as a researcher at the Research Institute for Natural Resources, Tokyo.
 
In addition, it appears that a considerable amount of maps were carried out from the spot of incineration disposal.

Tanakadate and others visited the General Staff Headquarters (formerly the Japanese Imperial Army) at Ichigaya, Tokyo, in September, 1945, immediately before the stationing of the allied forces, and, with their permission, carried out emergency arrangement of a large number of Gaihozu and domestic topographic maps, and removed them from the General Staff Headquarters and their detached office which existed at the Meiji University basement at Kanda, Tokyo.
 
Emeritus Professors of the Tokyo Metropolitan University, Nakano Tadamasa, and of Hosei University, Mitsui Kazuo, both of whom were then researchers at the Research Institute for Natural Resources, were engaged in conveyance of the maps to the institute which was near the Shin-okubo railway station.

From around 1960, the maps moved there were arranged mainly by the former Professor of the Ochanomizu University, Asai Tatsuro, who was a researcher at this research institute at that time, and were distributed to about 80 places, such as the Kyoto University, the Rikkyo University, the Hiroshima University, the University of Tokyo, the University of Ruhr, the University of Tsukuba, the Kumamoto University, and the Ochanomizu University.
 
The emergency arrangement and conveyance preparation to the Tohoku University were led by Doi Kikukazu (Professor at the Shizuoka University, deceased), the then informally designated assistant lecturer at the Tohoku University, with the then students including Okamoto Jiro (Emeritus Professor at the Hokkaido University of Education), and Fukui Hideo (the then future professor of the Tohoku University, deceased), and Mita Ryoichi (an officer at Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department, the Japan Coast Guard, who met with the fatal eruption of the Myojin-sho submarine volcano in 1952) among others.

Gaihozu were carried to Tohoku University in Sendai by a railroad freight car. The allied forces also carried out a lot of materials including Gaihozu immediately after requisition of the General Staff Headquarters, and it is said that the maps are now stored at the U.S. National Diet Library, Clark University, the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, and so forth.

 The Tohoku University’s possession of the Gaihozu

Among the about 10,000 maps (approximately 100,000 sheets) carried into the Faculty of Science, the Tohoku University, situated at Katahira-cho at that time, a part of domestic topographic maps were put in order immediately after their transfer, and they were used for education and research in geography.

However, it is said that a hesitant atmosphere prevailed where Gaihozu were treated in a rather covert manner probably in coincidence with the occupation by the allied forces, and the maps went from one store to another within the university campus following relocation of the Institute of Geography, which made it difficult to give sufficient room for arrangement and cataloguing.

The persons who were then related to the Institute and those concerned in academic societies based at adjuscent institutions recall that a part of Gaihozu were used as wrapping paper, which was scarce at that time, for dispatch of society periodicals, if the number of available sheets for the same map was many.

Following the 1994 decision to construct the Museum of Natural History at the Faculty of Science, a pending question for years, Gaihozu were arranged and classified on a full scale by the whole staff and students of the Institute of Geography. It turned out that the Tohoku University collection includes no maps of the U.S. mainland areas, which are thought to be part of the geographical coverage of Gaihozu, and that many maps are of China, India, Burma, and Indonesia, other Pacific Islands, Thailand and  also some of the Philippines but most were missing.

Note: There were maps from the Philippines, there was a small scale map of Mount Apo and a map catalouged as “near Davao” that caught my fancy, but many were missing…???? (Guess what was that?, your guess is as good as mine)
 

The Museum, opened at the Faculty site in Aobayama in October, 1995, systematically accommodates the inventoried Gaihozu, and 15 sheets were selected for open permanent exhibition, which were of Mount Agung in Bali, Imphal, Kwangtung, and Pearl Harbor in Honolulu among others.
 
Fifty years have passed since the maps were carried out of the General Staff Headquarters. The Institute of Geography then donated approximately 10,000 and 8,000 sheets of the original maps (if relatively many sheets were available for one map) and their photocopied versions (if only a few original remained) to the Geographical Survey Institute under the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, and the Gifu Prefectural Library respectively at their request, on condition of wide opening of the collection to the general public.
 
Gaihozu transfered to the Gifu Prefectural Library are exhibited at its World Distribution Map Center, and the writer learns that the institution attracts many users. The Institute of Geography also exchanged maps of China with the Department of Geography, Graduate School of Letters, Kyoto University, which accommodates a huge collection of Gaihozu, and the two institutions supplemented each other the original and photocopied versions which one institution missed.

These donation and exchange resulted in the increase in the number of maps to about 12,000 and the decrease in the total number of map sheets to approximately 72,000. Although small part of this collection consist of topographic maps of the former Japanese territories (South Saghalien, Korea, Taiwan and others) as well as domestic ones (with illustration of fortified zones), hydrographic charts and small-scale compiled maps, and are therefore excluded from the category of Gaihozu, these maps are also among those which were transfered from the General Staff Headquarters in September, 1945.

“Destiny is not a matter of chance. It is a matter of choice: It is not a thing to be waited for, it is a thing to be achieved.”
---William Jennings Bryan

Offline Ben Valmores

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more will be flowing next, got to sleep now.....signi'n off...
“Destiny is not a matter of chance. It is a matter of choice: It is not a thing to be waited for, it is a thing to be achieved.”
---William Jennings Bryan

Offline ZOBEX

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I doubt the shift or drift in Mag Dec would mean a whole lot when working on a possible Golden Lilly map, should any of us ever find one and that is really unlikely.

Here is an animated gif showing the overall Mag Drift, fun to watch.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/43/Earth_Magnetic_Field_Declination_from_1590_to_1990.gif

Any authentic map we might find would most likely have a variance of several degrees at the least from true readings just by poor quality compass that the lack of ability to use it.  Most maps I have seen have no compass readings other than a North line and a scale and most do not even have that.  I have seen and played with several IJA field compass's.  A Cub Scout compass is more accurate let along a Boy Scout compass.  None of which have Mag Dec adjustments.

Z



Z


again a little bit from,

Magnetic Declination

It is called the difference between the north geographic pole and the north magnetic pole.
Depending on where you are on the earth, the angle of declination will be different - from some locations, the geographic and magnetic poles are aligned so declination is minimal, but from other spots, the angle between the two poles is pretty big.

In context to T-hunting:

Does it make good sense to use a map's declination information if that map is more than 70 years old?, to those Golden Lily Maps and other small scale Japanese Treasure Maps???
 
Maybe these simple ways could answer that;

1. Use recently published maps and or that one  taken from google earth and or GPS (not affected by declination) but in conjunction with the old map.

2. Know the current declination for the area and use that information for your readings/navigations.

3. Adjust your compass


On many compasses, you are able to adjust the declination by twisting a ring, using a screw, or some other method of changing where the orienting arrow sits in relation to the ring.

If you used a compass set with 0 degrees declination in your treasure site, for example, where the declination may be 12 degrees East, the compass would tell you that you're heading North when you're actually heading 12 degrees East of North.
You'd quickly wind up off course and lost.
 
By adjusting the compass to match the declination on your map, the orienting arrow now appears to be off center from North, which is how it should be.

Now, when you put RED in the SHED (needle inside orienting arrow), the North indicated at the index pointer is true north and matches your map.

You can continue to check your location and chart your course correctly.
Whenever you stop and check your heading or take a bearing on a distant object, the degrees read on the dial will be the actual true degrees.

The only thing that looks a bit odd is that the north end of the compass needle does not point directly at the N when you are heading due North.

4. If you have a compass with no declination adjustment or you just like math, then you can do the declination calculations in your head---again you can do the math in your head.

Offline ZOBEX

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OK Students, When is a Map a Map and When is a Map NOT a Map ???

A Map must have TWO things to make it a map.  A North Line and a Scale.  Not having those requirements, the map is a CARTOON  !!!!

We used to get hit over the head with things like this.  Quickly we started putting North Lines and Scales on everything including hand written work, fliers and hand bills announcements for  beer and pizza parties and just about anything we could write on.  We even painted a North Line and Scale on the side of our Jeep we used to go out into the field in.  That really messed people up.  Our response was, we always knew which way North was because that is the way the Jeep is pointing and we knew how far we gone because it was measured on the side.  Sounds official when three guys are all dressed up in khaki field gear driving a camouflage jeep.

Z


Offline Ben Valmores

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Most maps I have seen have no compass readings other than a North line and a scale and most do not even have that.


Yes, that i wanted to confirm (for any Golden Lily Maps)
Anyone who got hold of the CD-ROM of Seagraves' Gold Warriors which promised to present some samples of authentic Golden lily sites???, please share it here anyone? just one Golden Lily map presented in that CD-ROM so that we can at least study one.
 
Seems similar to some of those Gaihozu maps strategically created for the Imperial Japanese Army---no compass readings other than a North line and a scale


“Destiny is not a matter of chance. It is a matter of choice: It is not a thing to be waited for, it is a thing to be achieved.”
---William Jennings Bryan

Offline Ben Valmores

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I will present Gaihozu maps in chronological order (from the oldest to the "latest")
The "latest"-that is near world war two mostly shows that clearly--no compass readings other than a North line and a scale.

 The known "oldest" was written in the very native Japanese characters kanji?, katakana or hiragana.
“Destiny is not a matter of chance. It is a matter of choice: It is not a thing to be waited for, it is a thing to be achieved.”
---William Jennings Bryan