Author Topic: JAPANIES CONCRETE/history,ingridients,how to brake it  (Read 2315 times)

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Offline spiritofthewind

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JAPANIES CONCRETE/history,ingridients,how to brake it
« on: January 31, 2022, 01:12:27 PM »
I can immagine this topic might be discusted all ready on different place
but I couldnt finde this kinde of information here with in one topic, I had to go true lots of readings and fights between memebers so as well I am using this chance to attract Treasure Hunter to revile they are knowlidge openly here about History relatated to Japan and they are obsesion with cement and at most  ingridience they use in Cement vaults and  how to brake them  with minimum effort .

I know really little about it but here I am traying to understand the composition of cement as most important starting point to me before I will start bangign hamering  for next 2 years on it .
I  hope some of you will be wiling to share  the knowlidge of its ingridiance and how to brake it CHEMICALY ......... because  I am shure many took samplers and brote them to labaratories for examination  so you know what it is made from and how to REVERS INGINERING  chemicay  and desolve it easy way .
Question remain will you share share this information openly or not ?
I HOPE THIS TOPIC AT LEAST HERE WILL BE SPARE FROM CHIT CHATING  BLA BLAMOUTHING BUT WILL BE A PALCE OF PURE INFORMATION......read,add information and leave with hope you could come back with practicle expiriencess inlightening us ........
I hope I didint sound offensive to any of you and if I did forgive me this was it was the last think  I wanted .....cheers
NOTICE : all information you are reading is simply borowed for educational purpose  and non of it is mine so bigg up for those they published it   ......I only wanted to summer it for me and new members like me  ,sowe do not have to go tru forum arguments but would like to move fasted true educational  part ..cheers WIND 



NAME  :  JAPANIES GRADE II BUNKER CEMENT

AUTENTICY TEST CAN BE DOEN WITH FALOWING AGENTS :
Calamansi juice ( citric asid)
Muriatic - names for hydrochloric acid means "pertaining to brine or salt". The chemical formula for muriatic acid is HCl.
                         
 INGRIDIENCE : Huge amound of silica, 
                                            quartz
                                            pyrites
                                            resin as adeshive
                                            hardener
                                            fly ash  or maidby vulcanic ash
The process of mixture is dry pouring method the moisture of the soil served as a slowing catelist .

JAPANIES CEMENT HISTORY :
 Constructing the Construction State: Cement and Postwar Japan
This paper inquires into the revival of the cement industry in postwar Japan. The Allied Occupation did not immediately undertake comprehensive plans to rebuild the country’s infrastructure. Only after controls on the production of basic industries were lifted in 1948 did cement production begin to rise. By 1956, Japan produced 13,737,594 tons of cement, double that of the prewar peak in 1939. This paper examines the rebirth of the Japanese cement and limestone mining industries in the period between 1945 and 1956 and highlights the cement industry’s role in the rebirth of Japan as a “construction state.”
Introduction
As the war in Asia and the Pacific drew to a close, air raids destroyed Tokyo, Yokohama, and nearly all other major Japanese cities. Reconstruction began in earnest in the late 1940s with onset of the Cold War serving as a major stimulus for Japanese economic recovery. In addition to new ferro-concrete buildings, bridges and roads, cement was necessary for river and coastline repair, tetrapods, embankments and dams. Although Japanese cement production had declined dramatically during the war years, the revival of the cement industry was initially slow. It was only after the so-called “reverse course,” around 1948-49, that the Allied Occupation began to make comprehensive plans to rebuild the Japanese economy and undertake basic reconstruction of a country in ruins. In 1949, controls on the production of basic industries, coal, iron, steel, and concrete were lifted; and after the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950, cement production began to rise dramatically. By 1956, Japan produced 13,737,594 tons of cement, double that of the prewar peak in 1939, and could boast the largest cement export industry in the world. This paper examines the rebirth of the Japanese cement and limestone mining industries in the period between 1945 and 1956. It assesses the contribution of the Cold War, and the Korean War in particular, in reviving Japan’s cement industry. The paper inquires into some of the colonial origins of Japan as a “construction state” and concludes with thoughts on the environmental impact and legacy of cement in Japan and the world today.
A Variety of Colonial Origins
During the 1930s, thousands of idealistic engineers, most connected with the Home Ministry, flocked to Korea, Taiwan and Manchukuo to construct the infrastructure of modern states: roads, bridges, railroads, canals, ports, water works, and communications networks.1 All of these projects required vast quantities of cement. To that end state-of-the art cement factories, one after the other, were set up in different parts of Japan’s colonial empire as branch factories of major cement producers in Japan, particularly Onoda and Asano. After the war, many of these engineers returned to Japan and eventually became involved in rebuilding a country that had been decimated by war. And, as in the case of Manchukuo, the revival of Japan’s cement industry was essential for national reconstruction. Asano, Onoda and other major cement producers were able to draw on the Manchurian experience. As a recent book on the history of civil engineers in Manchukuo concludes, the “nation building” (kokudo tsukuri) of postwar Japan was constructed on foundations laid by the “national building” of Manchukuo.2
Postcard: Building State Highways in Manchukuo (around 1934). In 1933, one year after the creation of Manchukuo, an ambitious ten-year program of road building was announced, seeking to build over 40,000km of new roads. Source: Author’s collection.
To this we may add another set of colonial origins. After defeat and loss of empire, Japan was occupied by the Allied Powers and primarily by the United States. The occupation lasted for seven years, from 1945 to1952. Goals to democratize and demilitarize Japan did not initially include economic reconstruction. Aside from so-called “zaibatsu busting,” plans were made to re-locate remaining industrial infrastructure to Japan’s former enemies as war reparations. Within a few years, the scale of this program was cut back, but by 1948 a few industrial plants and around 20,000 machine tools had been sent to China, the Philippines, and other former enemy territories.3 And while some cement factories did resume production, nearly 50 percent of production for the first three years was requisitioned by occupation forces for huge base construction projects.4 In the meanwhile, Japan remained in ruins. The so-called “reverse course” changed occupation policy. By 1948, American and Japanese officials initiated plans to build up basic Japanese industries, including cement, designated as a “strategic industry” along with steel, oil, chemicals, and electricity. Suddenly Japan was the recipient of American technology transfer, especially in areas related to strategic industries. The physical reconstruction of Japan began in the wake of the cold war and expanded dramatically during the very hot war in Korea—in 1950 and 1951, more than five years after the near total destruction of Japan’s urban infrastructure. And, as with the construction of Manchukuo, steel and cement were the building materials of choice for roads, bridges, buildings, ports, and communications and transportation systems. Aided this time by the United States, prewar policies dedicated to “wealth and power,” or what Janis Mimura calls “techno-fascism,” resurfaced in sustained and comprehensive programs of national reconstruction.5
Revival of Japan’s Cement Industry
The peak in prewar cement production was in 1940 at 6,048,499 metric tons. At that time Japan ranked among the top five cement producing countries in the world, with a total of 38 cement factories within the country, and branch factories in Korea, Manchuria, and China. The war years, however, exacted a heavy toll. In 1945, only slightly over 1 million tons were produced and in 1946, Japan’s first peacetime year, production further declined to 927,089 metric tons. Some plants had been dismantled and sent to the Philippines as reparations. All overseas production facilities were lost and most homeland plants were in poor shape. Moreover, industrial giants, such as Asano and Onoda, were targets of SCAP’s ambitious zaibatsu dissolution program.

Recovery was slow; indeed wartime controls over the manufacture of cement were replaced by occupation controls. For the cement industry, substantial and sustained growth came only after January 1, 1950, when government and military controls over cement production and limestone mining, in place since 1934, were finally eliminated.6 Cement factories saw this new age of free competition (jiyū kyōsō no jidai) as a major turning point, especially as the new exchange rate (360 yen to the dollar) served to encourage exports of Japanese cement. At the same time, extensive damage caused by Typhoons Kathleen (1947) and Kitty (1949), coupled with explosive population growth (Tokyo’s population swelled from 2.8 million in 1945 to over 5 million in 1950), made the need for housing and urban reconstruction all the more urgent.

The outbreak of the Korean War in June 1950 accelerated the expansion of cement production. As the Asahi reported on October 15, 1952, the special procurement system produced a welcome “cement boom” that served as a sort of guardian angel (keiki no kami) over Japan’s economic recovery.7 Indeed the war proved profitable for Japan, the one major non-combatant in the Korean War. After three years of a no growth policy and three years of failed attempts to stimulate production, in 1951 the mining and manufacturing industries, including cement, were suddenly able to surpass prewar levels. Instead of the Dodge Line, it was the “three white product boom” (sanhaku keiki) – sugar, ammonium sulfate (fertilizer), and cement – that led Japan out of its economic doldrums. Cement production in 1949 stood at 3.2 million tons; by 1951, production had doubled to 6.5 million tons, rising to 7 million tons in 1953, to 12.9 million tons in 1956, then soaring to 15 million tons in 1957.8

On the one hand special procurements meant demand for Japanese products, including cement, necessary for the war effort. At the same time, the war made export-led industrial growth possible. Cement companies had long dreamed of profits from exports. As Kasai Junpachi, the founder of Onoda Cement (1881, Japan’s first private cement company), was fond of saying: “We must guard against imports and buying dirt from foreign countries; instead, it is the duty of our countrymen to engage in trade with Shanghai and Hong Kong and thereby make profits by selling them our dirt.”9 Cement exports had expanded in the 1930s, primarily to Japan’s colonies; but it was only after 1948 when SCAP and Japanese government officials began to encourage free trade that Kasai’s dream was realized. In 1948 the Japan Export Corporation was founded and export by private corporations was allowed in 1949. One year later, the outbreak of the Korean War gave Japanese cement exporters access to markets in Southeast Asia, India, and Australia. On February 18, 1950, for example, negotiations with the Philippines, Japan’s new-found ally in the Cold War, resulted in permission for Nihon Cement to export 14,000 tons of cement.10 Orders continued to roll in. Exports in 1948 were a mere 140,000 tons; in 1949, they tripled to 486,000 tons; nearly doubling in 1951 to just over 1 million tons, and again by 1956 to over 2 million tons at which point Japan was the world’s largest exporter of cement. The Japanese cement industry continued to expand in the 1960s. The Suez crisis in 1957 increased Japan’s comparative advantage in Asian markets, and the damage caused by the massive 1959 Isewan Typhoon (Typhoon Vera) which left 5,000 dead, created opportunities and demand for further expansion of Japan’s cement industry. Finally, there was a special category of “export” cement destined for Okinawa in the 1950s, for use by the American military to create the infrastructure for its permanent occupation of the islands.
Rebuilding Japan—White Products at Work
After the war, several plans for the reconstruction of Tokyo and other burnt-out urban centers were advanced, but to no avail. By 1950, little of Tokyo was rebuilt according to any sort of comprehensive scheme—and when the reconstruction of Tokyo and other major cities accelerated thereafter, the only general principle in force was the near universal use of cement: building, roads, bridges, sewers, dams, river embankments, docks, sea walls, even cement telephone poles.

From around 1950, aside from exports, close to 60 percent of cement produced was consumed by public works, construction, roads and bridges, and power supply—areas dominated by public spending. This postwar reconstruction boom, sparked by the Korean War, re-asserted a mode and structure of development that continues to characterize Japan’s political economy: the so-called “Construction State” in which, up to the 1990s, sometimes as much as 40 percent of the nation budget was devoted to construction (and, in turn, to the abundant use of cement).11 Not surprisingly, the reconstruction boom began with little consideration of environmental consequences; moreover, local interests were often secondary to the needs of the center. Here too the postwar construction state (and its confidence in reshaping the environment to meet human needs) had multiple prewar origins.

Dams: In 1950, the Japanese government enacted a Comprehensive National Land Development Law (Kokudō sōgō kaihatsu-hō), inspired by America’s depression era public work projects including the TVA, as a starting point for massive infrastructure construction (rail, roads, seaports, airports, dams, and flood control). A dam boom followed; between the early 1950s and 1990, over 1000 dams were built, making Japan one of the dammed countries in the world.12 Of key importance was the construction of multi-purpose dams that could aid flood control, food production, and electric power generation. Japan’s first postwar large-scale development project was the construction of the Sakuma Dam on the Tenryū River, begun in 1952 and completed in 1956— at that time, the “the largest dam in the Orient,” and symbol of Japan’s national revival.13 On the one hand, the dam derived from American New Deal thinking, especially the TVA dam projects of the late 1930s, and relied on American dam building technology and heavy machinery, including imported Caterpillar bulldozers.14 At the same time, however, Japan’s postwar dams profited from mammoth colonial ”national land planning” projects in Korea and Manchukuo, such as the Fengman Dam and the Sup’ung Dam (completed in 1944 and, at that time, “the largest dam in Asia” and symbol of the power of Japanese imperial rule).15 Naturally such projects required extraordinary amounts of cement. In 1956, for example, the Hazamu Gumi, the firm in charge of the construction of the Sakuma Dam, took advantage of its own Manchurian experience, to pour some 5,180 cubic meters of cement per day—thus setting a new world record.16 Other massive civil engineering projects included the Okutadami Dam in Niigata, begun in 1953 and completed in 1960 (even today Japan’s largest hydro-electric station), the Kurobe Dam in Toyama, begun in 1956 and completed in 1963 (even today Japan’s tallest dam at 183 meters), and the Ogōchi Dam in Okutama, construction begun in 1936, halted in 1943, resumed in 1948, and completed in 1957; some 3 million cubic meters of cement were used in its construction.17 In all cases, these showcase national reconstruction projects resulted in the displacement of local peoples, the destruction of local environments, the devaluing of local economies--and electric power produced sent to the big cities.
Postcard: Pouring Cement for the Construction of the Okutama (Ogōchi) Dam (around 1954. In addition to 3 million cubic tons of cement, construction of the new dam consumed a total of eight million man days at a cost of 23,500 million yen and the lives of 82 workers. Source: Author’s collection.)
Public Housing: Housing was a priority in urban reconstruction throughout Japan. Over 4 million homes, largely in urban centers, had been destroyed in firebombing raids in the final months of the war. And yet, reconstruction was slow. In Tokyo, for example, by 1948 only 6.8 percent of those areas burnt by repeated napalm bombing raids, had been rebuilt. Millions of people lived in slum-like conditions. From the late 1940s, housing developments composed of clusters of multi-story concrete apartment buildings known as danchi, were built to help alleviate the housing crisis. Early examples include the Takanawa apartment (1946) and the Toyama apartments (1949), but large scale building was hampered by difficulty in obtaining sufficient quantities of cement.18 After its establishment in 1955, the Japan Public Housing Corporation (now Urban Renaissance Agency) began a nation-wide program of construction that continued for more than twenty years. Concrete was the building material of choice. Most danchi were four to fives stories high and composed of multiple units, sometimes up to 30 buildings, making up what came to be called a “new town.” Other danchi began to spread upwards; the first of these was the 10-story Harumi Housing Apartment completed in 1958.19 Looking back, the danchi seem cold and oppressive and are often described as “Soviet style public building blocks,” but in the 1950s, these were dream houses, which offered “the life we longed for.”20 Concrete was modern and progressive; the stainless steel sinksand flush toilets allowed an aspiring middle class to dream of a better future. The “new towns” in fact had prewar roots: danchi prototype cement structures were designed by architect Ichiura Ken in the early 1950s—based on his own prewar plans for standardized / rational public housing (jutaka no gorika), as a member of the 1941 Public Housing Commission (Jutaku Eidan). The use of cement was championed because of its ready availability; with nothing needing to be imported, cement was not only practical but patriotic.
Ready Mix Cement: Contributing to National Construction. Source: Advertisement in Nihon Cemento Nenkan (Japan Cement Annual,1968)
Roads, Bridges, and Expressways
In 1946, roughly 1 percent of Japan’s 900,000 kilometers of roads were paved. The occupation did little to improve the situation. Ralph J. Watkins, an economist invited by the Japanese government to advise on highway modernization, reported in 1956: “The roads of Japan are incredibly bad. No other industrial nation has so completely neglected its highway system.”21 By the late 1950s, construction began on a vast system of national expressways, national toll roads, and metropolitan expressways. Bridges and tunnels were built everywhere (and sometimes to nowhere)—concrete being the prime building material. Many of the engineers who worked on these postwar road construction projects, including Kaneko Masaki, Kishida Akira, Sakata Shizuo, Oshima Hidenobu, Seto Masaaki, and Katahara Nobutaka, had their training in the prewar Home Ministry and in Manchukuo and other of Japan’s colonies where they were given a relatively free hand to experiment with new construction materials and techniques. Kaneko, for example, wrote a primer on cement roads in 1941 and was active in the early 1950s in road improvement and city planning in Yokohama. His 1955 publication on “Concrete Road Pavement in Japan” (Waga kuni no semento konkurito hosō ni tsuite) along with Setō Masaaki’s 1943 text on “The Design and Construction of Automobile Expressways” (Jidōsha senyōdōro no sekkei) were essential reading for Japan’s postwar highway engineers.22 Similar to the Shinkansen, the Tōmei Expressway has prewar roots.23
Technology Transfers
Many of these postwar construction projects began in the prewar period. More particularly, the origins of Japan’s “construction state” ideology and planning may be found in the Manchukuo experiment. Kishi Nobusuke, Japan’s prime minister between 1957 and 1960, was, after all, the former head of the Manchukuo Industrial Development Bureau that had produced a series of five-year comprehensive plans to modernize the new country’s infrastructure. As a result, the cement industry in Manchukuo was among the most technically-advanced in the world— surpassing the quality of domestic production. Occupying Soviet forces relocated many of the most modern facilities to the Soviet Union, but, as we have seen, many workers and engineers returned to help rebuild Japan’s domestic cement industry.24 In addition to these areas of continuity with the prewar period, the cold war alliance between Japan and the United States allowed new cement technologies (many developed for military purposes) to flow into postwar Japan. In particular, the 1950s saw the introduction of dry process kilns, which allowed for greater efficiency and productivity.25 Ready mix concrete (nama-kon) was another innovation that added to the efficiency of concrete construction. Tokyo Concrete’s Narihirabashi Factory began to deliver ready mix on November 15, 1949, inaugurating the “ready mix” era (nama-kon jidai).26 In 1958, 615,715 tons of ready mix was delivered to construction sites; by 1968, this had risen dramatically to 12.4 million tons
LIMESTONE  – Japan’s Most Abundant Mining Resource
As can be seen in Chart 1, in the postwar period, limestone mining experienced explosive growth alongside the cement industry.28 The process to produce so-called Portland cement, the building material of the modern world, was developed in the middle of the nineteenth century. It is produced by heating limestone (and other clay-like materials) in a kiln to temperatures over 1,400 degrees C. This resulting clinker is then ground into a fine white powder. In immediate postwar Japan, although variable, about 1,777 kg of raw materials, including 1,250 kg of limestone, was required to produce one ton of cement. (Coal consumption per ton varied from 200 to 500 kg, depending on the quality of the coal).29 Japan is often known as a country without significant natural resources, a so-called “have not country” (motazaru kuni).30 In the case of limestone, however, Japan was and remains very much a moteru kuni – a country that has. Japan has estimated recoverable reserves of limestone amounting to around 380 billion tons. There are more than 200 limestone mines or quarries throughout Japan, from Hokkaido to Kyushu, with the greatest activity overlapping with cement producing centers occurring in the Kanto and in northern Kyushu. Prewar mining was largely open cut; large machinery including steam shovels and conveyer belts were introduced in the late 1920s and 1930s, along with tunneling and
Source: Japan Statistical Yearbook
the use of transport chutes. From the 1950s, in response to increased demand, and deprived of the cheap labor available in prewar Japan (sometimes in the form of forced Chinese and Korean laborers and POWs), new heavy machinery, including bulldozers, cranes, drilling and digging equipment, forklifts, and crushers, were introduced from the United States. New quarrying techniques were also imported. For example, the bench-cut method was introduced in 1955 and quickly spread throughout the industry; it was not pretty, but it was productive and allowed easy use of heavy machinery. The prewar peak of limestone production was in 1941 at 13.1 million tons. At war’s end, production had fallen to 4.5 tons but revived quickly after the beginning of the cold war in 1948. The prewar peak was surpassed in 1951 with the production of 15.5 million tons, rising to 40 million tons in 1960, and 120 million tons in 1970 rising to over 160 million tons in 1973.31 Despite its importance and abundance, not much attention has been paid to limestone production. Nonetheless, integral to Japan’s recovery and years of high growth, limestone was the foundation of Japan’s construction state. Limestone production kept pace with growing demands from the cement, steel, chemical and construction industries. But like the cement it helped to produce, limestone has left a mixed legacy of creativity and entropy, imprisonment and liberation, construction and destruction.
Concluding Thoughts – A Mixed Legacy
Is cement ugly? If this is cement’s only sin, then the world would be in much better shape. To be sure, Japan, is one of the most cemented-covered nations in the world. And, in the absence of new thinking, there appears to be no end in sight. The way to protect Japan’s seacoast from a giant tsunami like the one that hit northeastern Japan in 2011 has seemed to Japan’s leaders to be more concrete: a 400 km seawall, 12 meters in height at some places.32 But cement is also a major polluter, accounting even today for about five percent of global CO2 emissions.33 Cement produces greenhouse gases both directly (burning of fossil fuels, often coal, used to heat kilns) and indirectly (limestone, made of calcium carbonate, breaks down when heated into calcium oxide and CO2). Recent advances in technology have made the cement industry cleaner, but not yet carbon neutral. In 1950s Japan, the cement industry, alongside Chisso Corporation producing chemical fertilizers in Minamata and the Daiichi Petrochemical Complex in Yokkaichi, contributed mightily to Japan’s status, by the early 1960s, as one of the most polluted countries in the world.

Yes, cement is often an eyesore—it is the building material of mindless bureaucrats and construction companies. And yes, the making of cement and the mining of limestone are threats to the integrity of the natural environment. But cement can also be creative, liberating, and even beautiful. For postwar Japanese architects, including Tange Kenzō, Maekawa Kunio, and Ōtaka Masato, cement allowed for the construction of a new Japan, liberated from the past. As Ōtaka put it, “Concrete is our material. (Konkurito wa wareware no mono).” He continued: “Concrete is a material which comes out of Japan. We don't have to go to Manchuria or wherever, to get it, and we can't afford American, we can't afford sophisticated American goods. We build with concrete.34 Moreover, concrete was “manufactured from materials from the earth of the home islands and was created by the efforts of the people themselves,” making it the ideal material out of which to construct a new Japan stripped of its past.35

The point is that cement and limestone have left a mixed legacy of environmental liberation and destruction. Cement-based construction, including housing, bridges, highways, and even sea walls have allowed the construction of a state in which people can live in increased comfort and security. And whether deemed ugly or beautiful (or both), there is no going back. As Adrian Forty has noted, cement’s “indestructibility is both one of its most valued, and at the same time most reviled features.”36 The legacy of the “construction state” is also mixed; as with business and politics nearly everywhere, public good and private greed are often not far apart. An examination of the history of the construction of the Japanese construction state allows us (writ large) to learn from its failures as well from its successes.

This is a shortened and revised version of “Constructing the Construction State: The Postwar Revival of the Cement Industry,” Asian Cultural Studies, vol. 43, (Institute of Asian Cultural Studies, International Christian University, March, 2017), 85-99. Reproduced with permission of the Institute of Asian Cultural Studies.



HOW TO BRAKE OR DESOLVE JAPANIES CONCRITE :

1.Use of a burning rod.
   NOTICE : process renders ineffective if the pit is watery .

2. Dexpan        Dexpan is a cement with amazing 18,000 PSI expanding strength when mixed with water. Poured into drilled holes,
                       Dexpan breaks concrete and cracks, splits rocks safely and quietly, while providing SILENT cracking.
 
 HOW TO USE:   Mix one bag of Dexpan at a time Add water first, then Dexpan Mix well, preferably with an electric hand drill with a
                        mixing paddle to achieve a lump free slurry. Use only open pails or containers for mixing Rinse the bucket between
                        batches. Clear any water and excessive dust from holes.
                        bag of Dexpan can fill up to 9 lineal feet (2.5 meters) of 1.5 inches (3.8 cm) diameter holes. Cracking Or Cutting
                        Time: Properly mixed, the cracks may appear after 2~8 hours of filling drilled holes, depending on drilling patterns,
                        temperature, humidity, rock or concrete hardness. Give it 24 hours for best results.

WHERE TO BUY IT : Condeck sale Centar inc.
                              215-A Regina bldg 410
                              Escolta street MAnila
                              4080068/2425650

3.BETONAMIT :Betonamit is an explosion-free demolition agent which enables relatively accurate demolitions without the need for
                      special conditions or equipment. It has a very good shelf life of at least 3 years. After a reaction time of only a few hours
                      Betonamit develops an enormous expansion pressure, which is soon so powerful that every hard rock and even
                      reinforced concrete is broken apart. Compared to other conventional demolition methods, Betonamit works virtually
                      silently, vibration-free and environmentally-friendly.
WHERE TO BUY IT IN PH : I really dont know plus I read it is not good as Dexpan

4.BRISTAR :    is a soundless and environmentally safe, non- explosive demolition agent. It does not cause any flyrock, noise, ground
                      vibration, gas, dust or environmental pollution. BRISTAR creates systematic cracking in rock and concrete making
                      secondary breaking easier and quicker to complete.

5.KATROCK :   is a silent, non-explosive demolition agent having the capability of demolishing rock or concrete safely without causing
                      noise, vibration, fly-rock or environmental pollution.

6.HAMER AND CHISEL : My father use to say Hammer comes from HEVEN . Good old technic that might take you up to 2 years of
                                    chiseling true 8m- 16m thick concrite depens of treasure volume ......I say prey for thiker  possible vault
                                    becouse that means that something of huge valiu is behind .Some of the treasure hunters claim that they went
                                    true some of those vaults and finde nothing behinde .......hmmm could be .......the only way to know the truth
                                    is to go true it and see for your self what is on the other side .
                                    After all most of you Philipinos are not moving much around the world and  philipins eider so If I would be in
                                    your skin finding an preaty  positive site with concrite vault in front  of me hei I will have all of the time of my
                                    life to brake it and go true ......see it as 9-5 job for next 10 years .......its  your site no one can take it form you
                                    ...after all even bad guys will have to waith for you to brake true so simply take your time and do it slowly beat
                                    buy beat inch buy inch .
7. DIGG AROUND ABOVE OR UNDER : Its just me thinking loud .I have sean so manny pictures of vaults diggers come across and I
                                    never understud why they  just do not start digging around or above or under depending of situation ? I guess
                                    same effort you will use to digg true, might be used to digg around .It is an artificial opsticle made by humans
                                    to prevent you go feather so then as well you can go around .........i assume vaults are not 1 mile long or high
                                    .....they have limmits too . I migh be wronge .But seriously I saw one example of that group of diggers some
                                    10 m down with an huge opening they digg in diameter only to be confronted with solid concrite vault in front
                                    .As I could see they clean it preaty nice and it was cristal clear that it will be impossible to go true .Those guys
                                    had no any financies and where working with hamers and chisels .....so I say accept that purpose of those
                                    concrite voults are to stop and prevent exacly such type of people intending to reach the treasure ......It is
                                    made against people just like you .Ones you sucssed to go true  they will give you a nother puzzle like poisons
                                    an gasses and if you sucssed to go true then they will blast you with explosive .......in between they might to
                                    drown you as rats with water or sand .SO my advice is when  you start to digg  tray to digg as bigger as
                                    possible tunnels because of all those opsticles you might come a cross .Shure it is a tripple work but it is how it
                                    is .The smaller you digg the more heavier escavation will be .If you can digg so that you  can walk upwards
                                    what more
                                    and plesurabble you will want .But hei look who is talking here some one that never digged one stone in my life
                                    .Sorryyy its just me thinking loud .Really I have sean some of the sites and oh man they sims to have all of the
                                    positive signs of treasure being there ........No matter how much of time or years will take me I will digg all
                                    area  aroud and brake this Japanies code . This counts to those sure sites not ones that might be .Some of you guys  have it in front of your nouse so much gold hohohoohohoho......just you need to acept the fackt that the JIA took Sh...t lots of time with hole army and slaves to digg it and create it and tehn seald it so you know 5-6 of you with hammer and cheisels come on get real .....


ok so far so good at least some of the known information on one place I will digg more I prommise up to the point to reach of Chemicle formula which will desolved easily concrite ......its out there ......I know .

cheers WIND


 









Offline admin

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Re: JAPANIES CONCRETE/history,ingridients,how to brake it
« Reply #1 on: February 01, 2022, 05:24:38 PM »
Wow.. thank you for all your great information there. I'm sure a lot of people here will appreciate it very much!
TW

Offline ZOBEX

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Re: JAPANIES CONCRETE/history,ingridients,how to brake it
« Reply #2 on: February 01, 2022, 10:34:54 PM »
One problem with TRUE "hard" Japanese cement is, it can not be hammered.  It is a light tan to cream in color, texture is more ceram like with a consistance fine grain that is not really distinquishable to a naked eye.  It can not be broke with a hammre or jack hammer.  It absorbs the impact, does not fracture, powder or chip.  Hard strikes produce only a little dust on the surface.  Since hard cement is cast, it will be found in cubic or flat surfaced structures, often cubes or rectangular blocks.   It can be cut with a circular power saw blade as used in cutting steel.  A 15" blade will work, pruduces dust as it cuts.  I used a Makita gas power saw with 15" blade and a water drip feed to keep the dust down.  One way is to make repeated slice cuts into it leaving a stack or series of flat blades resembling slices of bread in a loaf.  Then try to laterallt shear off the slices.  That has been down.  Cast forms are often up to 3 feet aka 1 meter thick forms.

There is a non-toxic solution that will cause it to disintigrate so that it can be scrapped as would small grain gravel.  A closely guarded secret of the Japanese recovery team.

A leser hard type of cement is mixed using rice resin glue in the cement mix.  This can be somewhat broke down using a Lye base solution.


Z





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Re: JAPANIES CONCRETE/history,ingridients,how to brake it
« Reply #3 on: February 02, 2022, 08:44:04 AM »
Great advice! Welcome back. Where have you been hiding lately??
TW

One problem with TRUE "hard" Japanese cement is, it can not be hammered.  It is a light tan to cream in color, texture is more ceram like with a consistance fine grain that is not really distinquishable to a naked eye.  It can not be broke with a hammre or jack hammer.  It absorbs the impact, does not fracture, powder or chip.  Hard strikes produce only a little dust on the surface.  Since hard cement is cast, it will be found in cubic or flat surfaced structures, often cubes or rectangular blocks.   It can be cut with a circular power saw blade as used in cutting steel.  A 15" blade will work, pruduces dust as it cuts.  I used a Makita gas power saw with 15" blade and a water drip feed to keep the dust down.  One way is to make repeated slice cuts into it leaving a stack or series of flat blades resembling slices of bread in a loaf.  Then try to laterallt shear off the slices.  That has been down.  Cast forms are often up to 3 feet aka 1 meter thick forms.

There is a non-toxic solution that will cause it to disintigrate so that it can be scrapped as would small grain gravel.  A closely guarded secret of the Japanese recovery team.

A leser hard type of cement is mixed using rice resin glue in the cement mix.  This can be somewhat broke down using a Lye base solution.


Z

Offline spiritofthewind

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Re: JAPANIES CONCRETE/history,ingridients,how to brake it
« Reply #4 on: February 02, 2022, 04:34:20 PM »
I am so sorry for my inccorect english wrighting ......I can spek almost  pefect but wrighting it depense of my mode and my state of minde I have it all in ,my head but when it come of puting in on papir pfffff ........yes I know I could use spell chek but I am typing on an old lap top that I finde while dump diving hahahaha it is a weird fanch key board and I dont know ......all letters mixed .....
yea I really love going as fast as possible true information and absorb it as soon as possible so I tought to gather as much as possible info in one messadge ......

Wow.. thank you for all your great information there. I'm sure a lot of people here will appreciate it very much!
TW

Offline spiritofthewind

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Re: JAPANIES CONCRETE/history,ingridients,how to brake it
« Reply #5 on: February 02, 2022, 05:05:36 PM »
Zobex you sims to be an genious ......I am new here and have no idea who you are but you strike so strait forword giving me such burst of excitmant and will to crak this Japanies concrite ones for all ......Surcasticly eniff it become more valiuble to crack an way how to brake this concrite then even recovery of gold its self . I have red 2/3 times your quote and honestly I haven understud much except that I am guessing main key in thet concrite behivour is RESIN .I remember in Spain while working for an German client he teached me to add resin that is used for micro cement he told me I can mix that resin with any type of cement ,tile glue where the mas will be at first beat starnge because it want absorm each other that fast but after some time stiring it will become to be an pup .Ones it drayed it will be hard and waterprove  very difficult to penetrate but not close buy your explanation of JIA cement .

But ok honestly did you ever took a sampler and send to lab for examination ? or do you know any one that did it ? Is it possible at all to examine and get the resolts on what exacly this misticle cement is made of ? I am not shure but I guess Elmo stated at some point in one of his videos that he knew the easy way of desolving the J.concrite but he kinde of kept a sicret and he sayed chemicle will be illigal in Philipins ? Is there any truth in there ........would you be open to share information .
You have bean so far greath motivator with some truth expirience out there ....thank you
I promiss ones I  recover gold I will give you part of it gladly because you are spreding some real knowlidge .Just tell me where to contact you or leave my appreciation . ;)

PS: oh pleaseee ZOBEX I read your story on that plain and this is awesome story ........sinds I am more driven buy egg shape Elmos story and now yours about plain ......ho ......I really see my self more wondering above the ground then under ....just some how I am scared from being down there and I know absolutly nothing about digging or any law of nature down there plus it is an horror scenario for me so crusing true jungle and forest mountains hils shors yea its more me .Would you be kinde to tell me some more about this plain or is there any writhen sorce I could have a piek ? again thatnk so much ......cheers
WIND .
 



One problem with TRUE "hard" Japanese cement is, it can not be hammered.  It is a light tan to cream in color, texture is more ceram like with a consistance fine grain that is not really distinquishable to a naked eye.  It can not be broke with a hammre or jack hammer.  It absorbs the impact, does not fracture, powder or chip.  Hard strikes produce only a little dust on the surface.  Since hard cement is cast, it will be found in cubic or flat surfaced structures, often cubes or rectangular blocks.   It can be cut with a circular power saw blade as used in cutting steel.  A 15" blade will work, pruduces dust as it cuts.  I used a Makita gas power saw with 15" blade and a water drip feed to keep the dust down.  One way is to make repeated slice cuts into it leaving a stack or series of flat blades resembling slices of bread in a loaf.  Then try to laterallt shear off the slices.  That has been down.  Cast forms are often up to 3 feet aka 1 meter thick forms.

There is a non-toxic solution that will cause it to disintigrate so that it can be scrapped as would small grain gravel.  A closely guarded secret of the Japanese recovery team.

A leser hard type of cement is mixed using rice resin glue in the cement mix.  This can be somewhat broke down using a Lye base solution.


Z

Offline spiritofthewind

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Re: JAPANIES CONCRETE/history,ingridients,how to brake it
« Reply #6 on: February 02, 2022, 05:16:58 PM »
OH YEA how could I forget to ask you ........ ;D .......why going true concrit vauld ?......sinds it is almost inpenetrabble .....why not simply digg around ? it sims to me more logic to digg around ?.........but worninig I honestly have never digg in my life more then a meter in the ground just that you know who is on the other end of conversation .......still I am moving next year to PH and will be deffinitly confronted with some of those vaults ........ no one really talk about digging around .......is that possible ? or are they could be some kinde of complications ......I mean yes I can imaggine you are deep down there in a nearow tunnel  and ones you are stoped by such thick monster saying clearly no trespassing why not simply go around ?


One problem with TRUE "hard" Japanese cement is, it can not be hammered.  It is a light tan to cream in color, texture is more ceram like with a consistance fine grain that is not really distinquishable to a naked eye.  It can not be broke with a hammre or jack hammer.  It absorbs the impact, does not fracture, powder or chip.  Hard strikes produce only a little dust on the surface.  Since hard cement is cast, it will be found in cubic or flat surfaced structures, often cubes or rectangular blocks.   It can be cut with a circular power saw blade as used in cutting steel.  A 15" blade will work, pruduces dust as it cuts.  I used a Makita gas power saw with 15" blade and a water drip feed to keep the dust down.  One way is to make repeated slice cuts into it leaving a stack or series of flat blades resembling slices of bread in a loaf.  Then try to laterallt shear off the slices.  That has been down.  Cast forms are often up to 3 feet aka 1 meter thick forms.

There is a non-toxic solution that will cause it to disintigrate so that it can be scrapped as would small grain gravel.  A closely guarded secret of the Japanese recovery team.

A leser hard type of cement is mixed using rice resin glue in the cement mix.  This can be somewhat broke down using a Lye base solution.


Z

Offline spiritofthewind

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Re: JAPANIES CONCRETE/history,ingridients,how to brake it
« Reply #7 on: February 02, 2022, 05:58:17 PM »
ITS JUST an IDEA.......... WOULD A LASER BEAM CUT TRUE JAPANIES CONCRITE ?

I surch a beat and so far look what I finde......of corse this will be for more advanced Treasu Hunters that all rwady recovered gold and have finicess to perhapse buy or rent company that does such servicess ? I have no idea yet size of the  unit and how easy will be to transport it to Jungle .....perhapse use of helicopter .........hei If the site is so damn possitive and money is no issue .....yep perhapse this could be doen .

By repeating laser melting and mechanical removal of the dross formed, it has been shown that even 50cm thick concrete can be cut.

Lasers offer noise- and vibration-free processing in the construction industry

S. Wignarajah and Kaori Nagai
The use of lasers for processing materials used in civil engineering has been investigated for nearly four decades, but progress has been slow because of the high cost of laser processing and high power requirements for processing concrete and other materials, which are often thick or large in area. Since the late 1990s rapid advances have been made in the development of multi-kilowatt lasers such as high-power diode lasers and fiber lasers that has spurred renewed interest. Below we briefly describe some of the recent developments in the use of high-power lasers for cutting, drilling, and surface modification of materials such as concrete, mortar, and natural stones used in the civil engineering field.

Laser glazing
Techniques for laser glazing of natural stones and cement-based materials for use as wall paneling were developed in the early 1990s.1-4 A defocused, low power density beam (about 400 W/cm2) is used to melt the surface layer, and colors can be imparted to the glass layer by the addition of metallic ions. In the case of natural stones, metal ions in the form of aqueous salts are applied to the surface by brushing or other means before laser treatment. In the case of cement-based materials, small quantities of metal oxide powders are added to the mortar or concrete mix before the panel is cast. When the surface is melted by the laser, the glass layer takes on the color corresponding to the metal ion or oxide. Glazing by laser has the advantage that designs or color shades can be produced easily by varying the laser treatment parameters.

Laser decontamination
The feasibility of using lasers to remove the contaminated surface layer from concrete walls and floors in nuclear facilities is being investigated in many countries.5-9 The contamination usually exists only near the surface, the remaining thickness of the concrete being free of contamination. Removal of the contaminated surface layer (usually a few millimeters thick) would greatly reduce the volume of concrete to be disposed as contaminated waste during the decommissioning of these nuclear facilities. Some of the advantages of laser decontamination are: ease of remote operation that minimizes the time workers need to spend in the contaminated area, reduced generation of secondary waste, and reduced contamination of equipment. Proposed techniques of surface layer removal by laser irradiation include vaporization, spalling, and heat degradation.Vaporization (ablation) of the surface layer can be achieved by scanning a focused laser beam over the surface of the concrete using relatively high power densities of the order of a few thousand watts /cm2, whereas a defocused beam with low power density (200 to 300 W/cm2) is employed for removal by spalling. In the latter case, the instantaneous evaporation of the water in the concrete just below the surface generates internal stresses that result in delamination and spalling of the surface layer. The disadvantage of removal by spalling is that the method is somewhat unstable and is limited to the first pass. Repeated scanning by laser of a previously spalled area produces little or no further spalling. For this reason, this method is effective for removing only shallow surface layers of about 2 or 3 mm in thickness.

A third method of removing the surface layer is to cause melting and heat degradation of the concrete near the surface by laser irradiation. The solidified glass layer and the heat-degraded zone below it are very brittle and can be easily removed by a mechanical tool (see Fig. 2). The feasibility of this method was successfully demonstrated in a nuclear facility in Japan in 1999 using a Nd:YAG laser robotic system. The process of laser melting and mechanical removal can be repeated until the desired thickness is removed.

Surface roughening
The use of a CO2 laser for scabbling and roughening the surface of granite stones used in buildings was demonstrated more than 10 years ago in Japan,10 as an alternative to the conventional method of roughening using jet burners. The advantages of laser scabbling compared to the burner process are: little or under-surface cracking, little or no loss of strength, no damage to the stone edges, and ease of producing surface designs similar to the example shown.More recent investigations in Germany, Spain, and Japan have demonstrated that lasers can also be used to engrave numerous tiny craters or thin tracks on granite and other stone surfaces to improve their slip resistance.11-13 The Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology IWS in Germany has developed a process in which a pulsed laser beam is scanned across the surface of polished stones to produce thousands of micro-craters on the surface, producing improved slip resistance without losing much of the surface gloss. The method is being used in factories in Italy and Germany to produce slip-resistant stone flooring. A prototype of a mobile laser machine for slip-prevention treatment of existing floors has been developed.

Rock drilling
The Hokkaido Development Bureau in Japan has been investigating the feasibility of using lasers to drill holes in dangerous rock overhangs along roadsides in order to insert explosives for blasting and removal.14 The reason for using lasers to drill such holes is that no vibration and noise accompanies the drilling process. Actual outdoor field tests have been carried out using an 8kW Nd:YAG laser system.Since 1997, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and its partners have been carrying out a long-term project on using lasers for rock drilling in oil well construction.15-17 Basic studies on laser-rock interactions have produced encouraging results, and GTI set up a new research facility in 2004 for evaluating the use of laser energy to improve various well construction and completion processes.GTI has acquired a 5.34kW Yb-doped fiber laser recently for carrying out further studies on rock drilling.

Cutting concrete
Because of their low generation of fume and dust and ease of remote control, the use of lasers for cutting concrete in the decommissioning of nuclear reactor facilities is an attractive proposition.19 Figure 4 collates some of the reported laboratory test results on laser cutting of concrete. The energy input required for cutting rises rapidly when the thickness of the concrete exceeds about 10 cm due to the fact that expulsion of the viscous, molten material produced in the kerf becomes difficult with increasing depth. The maximum thickness that can be cut with a single pass is about 30 cm.Recently a multi-pass method of cutting thick concrete using about 1 kW of laser power has been proposed in the UK.20 The method involves melting a shallow layer of the concrete and removing the solidified dross mechanically. By repeating laser melting and mechanical removal of the dross formed, it has been shown that even 50cm thick concrete can be cut. In another development, German researchers have demonstrated that the use of a pressurized cutting head is useful in expelling the viscous melt from the kerf, and have conceived a mobile cutting system based on this concept for on-site concrete cutting in apartment blocks.

Drilling concrete
In earthquake-prone areas, it is often necessary to strengthen existing concrete buildings (seismic retrofitting) by drilling holes in the concrete for holding steel anchors; however a major problem is the noise and vibration created by the use of conventional mechanical drills. Laser drilling of concrete is an attractive alternative because noise and vibration levels could be kept quite low. In the U.S., the Loma Linda University Medical Center and the Edison Welding Institute (EWI) have been developing laser drilling and cutting techniques for concrete, and it has been reported that drilling of concrete at an actual work site will soon be carried out using a prototype mobile laser system.Conclusion
One of the greatest needs in the construction industry is the development of techniques that allow noise and vibration-free processing of concrete and other materials at construction sites. Laser processing is capable of answering this need. It is encouraging to note that a number of new applications such as laser roughening of stone floors and laser drilling of concrete for seismic retrofit are ready or nearly ready for use on a commercial scale. The recent rapid progress in laser technology that has led to commercial availability of compact, multi-kilowatt diode lasers and fiber lasers is likely to accelerate the development of laser applications in civil engineering during the next decade.

References
William C. Maurer, Advanced Drilling Techniques, Petroleum Publishing Co., Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, p. 421-463, 1980.
John F. Asmus, “Large-Scale Stone Cleaning by Laser” Western Association for Art Newsletter 13-1, Jan. 1991, at http://palimpsest.stanford.edu/waac/wn/wn13/wn13-1/wn13-102.html.
Martin Cooper, “Recent Developments in Laser Cleaning,” quoted in http://www.buildingconservation.com/articles/laser/laser.htm.
M. Hamasaki, “Experimental cutting of biological shield concrete using laser,” Proc. International Symp. on Laser Processing sponsored by the Institute of Laser and Chemical Technology, Tokyo, p.68-73, May 1987.
Sugita et al., ”Application of laser for cutting concrete,” Concrete Journal 24-1, p.13-22, 1986 (in Japanese).H. Yoshizawa et al., “Study on laser cutting of concrete,” Journal of the Japan Welding Society, 120-1, p. 31-3637, 1989.
Laser Handbook, published by the Sangyo Gijutsu Service Center, p. 302-305, 1994 (in Japanese).
Y. Yokoyama et al., “Cutting of large-sized ceramic panels by CO2 laser,” Review of Laser Engineering 24- 2, p. 200-208, 1996 (in Japanese).
Magarida Pires et al., “Marble Cutting by Laser,” SPIE 952, p. 622, 1988.
K. Sugimoto et al., “Study on laser cutting assisted by water saturation of marble,” Review of Laser Engineering 24-2, p. 191-199, 1996 (in Japanese).
S. Ohashi et al., ”Recent CO2 laser equipment and welding,” Welding Technique 43-11, p.60-65, 1995 (in Japanese).S. Wignarajah et al., “Laser Surface Treatment of Natural Stone and Cement Composites,” Taisei Technical Reports 24, p. 401-407, 1991.
K. Sugimoto et al., ”Fundamental Study on Laser Treatment of Architectural Materials,” Proc. of ICALEO 1990, Boston, Nov. 1990.
S. Wignarajah et al., ”Effect of Laser Surface Treatment on the Physical Characteristics and Mechanical Behaviour of Cement Base Materials,” Proc. of ICALEO 1992, Florida, Oct. 1992.
H. Ichihara et al., ”Colored glass layer formation on cement-based materials by laser,” Review of Laser Engineering 22-4, 1994 (in Japanese).
K. Nagai et al., “Study of effective use of rejected wood,” Proc. International Conference of the CIB Working Commission 70, October 1994, Tokyo, p. 1071.K.Tanaka et al., ”Microstructural changes of the surface layer of granite and durability after roughening treatment,” Proc. International Conference of the CIB Working Commission 70, October 1994, Tokyo, p. 591.
L. Li et al., “Laser Fixing and Sealing of Radioactive Contamination on Concrete Surfaces,” Proc. LAMP ’92, Nagaoka, Japan, p.842, June 1992.
H. Kamata et al., “Study on methods for decontaminating concrete surface by laser treatment,” Review of Laser Engineering 24-2, p. 182-199, 1996 (in Japanese).
U.S Patent No. 05538764.
European Patent No. EP0653762.
Sivakumaran Wignarajah, Kenji Sugimoto, and Kaori Nagai, “Trends in high power laser applications in civil engineering,” Proc. SPIE Vol. 5777, p. 829-839, XV International Symposium on Gas Flow, Chemical Lasers, and High-Power Lasers, Prague 2004; Jarmila Kodymova; Ed.An expanded reference list for this article can be accessed on the ILS Web site, www.industrial-laser.com.
Sivakumaran Wignarajah and Kaori Nagai are with the Technology Center of Taisei Corporation, Japan.




Offline fom1113

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Re: JAPANIES CONCRETE/history,ingridients,how to brake it
« Reply #8 on: February 05, 2022, 10:16:37 PM »
I think this process is enough to break any hard object on earth, imho.

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HYl6ilG7qq4

We were unaware of this technology during the days we reach the vault concrete when i was active in hunting decade ago. The end was failure, the entire upper part of the hole/shaft collapsed. After a year we ventured in a nearby province to try to find an easy recovery quick depo but then again we were surprised by a concrete vault in front of us. 2nd failure. If ever i can venture again in TH and see a vault in front of me for the third time maybe it's different today.
Failures made them perfect yet perfect are generous to make themselves masters of their knowledge!

Offline spiritofthewind

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Re: JAPANIES CONCRETE/history,ingridients,how to brake it
« Reply #9 on: February 20, 2022, 06:13:03 PM »
here I just  trayed to understand what is concrete and how it is made and if it will be possible to crack formula organic or chemicle to soften it or disolve it .......I am going true my own educational steps and hope you want minde me doing it this way ..........It is me my self and I having questions and traying to get answers .........if you like you can join me brein washing ......
                                                             
                                                            What kind of acid will dissolve concrete?

                                   Shortly to summer concrete is made of a mixture of :agreggate,cement and water .

AGREGGATE (means a mass, assemblage, or sum of particulars; something consisting of elements but considered as a whole.
                    example are geological materials such as natural gravel (gravel is uncountable small fragments of rock)
                    sand and crushed rockor or stone .
                    The size of the particles determines whether it is a coarse aggregate (e.g. gravel) or a fine aggregate (e.g. sand).
                    Aggregate materials help to make concrete mixes more compact.
 
CEMENT       is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets, hardens, and adheres to other materials to bind them together.
                   Cement is seldom used on its own, but rather to bind sand and gravel (aggregate) together.
                   Cements used in construction are usually inorganic, often lime or calcium silicate based, which can be characterized as
                   non-hydraulic or hydraulic respectively, depending on the ability of the cement to set in the presence of water.
                   
                   Non-hydraulic cement does not set in wet conditions or under water. Rather, it sets as it dries and reacts with carbon dioxide in the air. It is
                   resistant to attack by chemicals after setting.
                   Hydraulic cements (e.g., Portland cement) set and become adhesive due to a chemical reaction between the dry ingredients and water.
                   The chemical reaction results in mineral hydrates that are not very water-soluble and so are quite durable in water and safe from chemical
                   attack. This allows setting in wet conditions or under water and further protects the hardened material from chemical attack.
                   The chemical process for hydraulic cement was found by ancient Romans who used volcanic ash (pozzolana) with added lime (calcium
                   oxide).
                 
                   Volcanic ash consists of fragments of rock, mineral crystals, and volcanic glass, created during volcanic eruptions and measuring less than
                   2 mm (0.079 inches) in diameter . The term volcanic ash is also often loosely used to refer to all explosive eruption products (correctly
                   referred to as tephra), including particles larger than 2 mm. Volcanic ash is formed during explosive volcanic eruptions when dissolved
                   gases in magma expand and escape violently into the atmosphere.

WATER         we all know what a water is.

                                                                                     Once formed
                        The water reacts with the cement to form a calcium-silicate hydrate (Calcium silicate hydrate (or C-S-H) is the main
                           product of the hydration of Portland cement and is primarily responsible for the strength in cement based materials)     
                                                                                           with curing.
                        Various additives can alter the characteristics of concrete which may include compounds which contain aluminum,
                                                          iron, silicon, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, others.
                   The curing process will provide about 90% of potential strength in 30 days, but the curing process will continue for years.

                                                                        As far as an acid’s ability to dissolve concrete
                                    Most acids can dissolve the calcium-silicate hydrate portion of concrete as well as many of the additives.
                         However, the aggregate may not dissolve but rather washed away in the process of dissolving the calcium-silicate hydrate.
                                    Sometimes, you would be left with crushed stone depending upon the acid as sand may dissolve as well. 
                                          You will also be left with any reinforcement materials (iron rods) which may slowly dissolve also.

                                          The real question in an acid’s ability to ‘dissolve’ concrete is it’s concentration and resultant pH.
                                                      The lower the pH will increase the speed that the concrete will dissolve.
                                Concrete has a rather basic pH (sometimes pH of 12 or higher) and will react with acids with a pH of 6.5 or lower.
                                   So, a diluted acid with a pH just below 7 may take years to dissolve even a layer of concrete from the surface.
            With pn acid with a pH at 3 or below the reaction can be a matter of minutes to hour depending upon the size of concrete.
                                     Note that to continually dissolve concrete, one may need to add more acid to further dissolve larger pieces.

                                                           Common acids which have been used to dissolve concrete are:

SULFURIC ACID:/ H₂SO₄ /Sulfuric acid is a colorless oily liquid. It is soluble in water with release of heat. It is corrosive to metals and tissue. It will char
                       wood and most other organic matter on contact, but is unlikely to cause a fire. ... Sulfuric acid, spent appears as a black oily liquid.
                       irritate and burn the skin and eyes, and may lead to blindness. exposures may cause a build-up of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary
                       edema), a medical emergency. ► Exposure can cause headache, nausea and vomiting. Sulfuric acid (H2S04) is a corrosive substance,
                       destructive to the skin, eyes, teeth, and lungs. Severe exposure can result in death. Workers may be harmed from exposure to sulfuric
                       acid. The level of exposure depends on dose, duration, and type of work being done.             
                       The government has banned people possessing strong sulphuric acid without a valid reason as part of its drive to tackle acid attacks and
                       violent crime.

HYDROCHLORIC ACID:Hydrochloric acid is the water-based, or aqueous, solution of hydrogen chloride gas. It is also the main component of gastric
                                 acid, an acid produced naturally in the human stomach to help digest food.
                                 Skin exposure to low concentrations of hydrogen chloride gas or hydrochloric acid causes erythema and inflammation of the skin
                                 whereas high concentrations can cause severe chemical burns to the skin and mucous membranes.
                                 Abstract. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is commonly used for the neutralization of alkaline agents, as a bleaching agent, in food,
                                 textile, metal, and rubber industries. It is neutralized if released into the soil and it rapidly hydrolyzes when exposed to water.
                                 You can easily buy hydrochloric acid solutions and products in handy household sizes, safe laboratory containers and bulk
                                 quantities. If you want to know where to purchase hydrochloric acid, here are a few good options.


NITRIC ACID:Nitric acid is a nitrogen oxoacid of formula HNO3 in which the nitrogen atom is bonded to a hydroxy group and by equivalent bonds to the
                    remaining two oxygen atoms. It has a role as a protic solvent and a reagent. It is a conjugate acid of a nitrate.
                    Nitric acid may be harmful if inhaled, ingested, or absorbed through the skin. It is extremely destructive to mucous membranes and upper
                    respiratory tract tissues. It causes severe skin and eye burns, and may cause blindness and permanent eye damage.

ACETIC ACID:Acetic acid is also known as ethanoic acid, ethylic acid, vinegar acid, and methane carboxylic acid; it has the chemical formula of
                    CH3COOH. Acetic acid is a by product of fermentation, and gives vinegar its characteristic odor.
                    Effects on Humans: In vapor form, acetic acid is a severe irritant of the eyes, mucous membranes, upper respiratory tract, and skin. In
                    contact with the skin or eyes, acetic acid solutions of 80% or more can be corrosive, causing severe burns of any exposed tissue.

CARBONIC ACID:carbonic acid, (H2CO3), a compound of the elements hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen. It is formed in small amounts when its
                         anhydride, carbon dioxide (CO2), dissolves in water. ... Carbonic acid plays a role in the assembly of caves and cave formations like
                         stalactites and stalagmites.
                         Carbonic acid is widely used in the preparation of bubbly drinks such as sodas, soft drinks, sparkling wines, and other aerated
                         beverages. Carbonic acid is also used in many other fields, such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, fertilizers, food processing,
                         anesthetics, etc.                                 
                         Carbonic acid is not considered to be toxic or dangerous to human health since it is present naturally in the human body. However, it is
                         important to note that exposure to high concentrations of H2CO3 can irritate the respiratory tract and the eyes.
                         Nitric acid is used for the production of ammonium nitrate, a major component of fertilizers. It is also used for producing explosives
                         like nitroglycerin and trinitrotoluene (TNT) and for oxidizing metals.


                                                                  Each of the acids listed will produce a soluble salt in water.
                                                        In using acids to attack concrete, one needs to make sure that the acid is not
                                                          full strength/concentrated as some water is needed to dissolve the concrete.
                              Any environment where concrete is exposed to acids can be a cause for a degradation of the concrete and especially it’s surface.
                                               This has not been an exhaustive list of possible acids but only which are commonly used or studied
                                                          and are known to easily reach the lower pH’s necessary to affect a reaction.
                                          It is common practice to use hydrochloric acid to clean cement but the concentration of the acid
                                                                 and the time of contact must be controlled to prevent degradation.
                                                                                                            Acids
                  In general, portland cement concrete does not have good resistance to acids. In fact, no hydraulic cement concrete, regardless
                                           of its composition, will hold up for long if exposed to a solution with a pH of 3 or lower.
                                           However, some weak acids can be  tolerated, particularly if the exposure is occasional.
                                                      Acids react with the calcium hydroxide of the hydrated portland cement.
            In most cases, the chemical reaction forms water-soluble calcium compounds, which are then leached away by aqueous solutions .
          The products of combustion of many fuels contain sulfurou gases which combine with moisture to form sulfuric acid.
                                                             Also,certain bacteria convert sewage into sulfuric acid.
      Sulfuric acid is particularly aggressive to concrete because the calcium sulfate  formed from the acid reaction will also deteriorate concrete via
                                                                                      sulfate attack.